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Gabriele D'Annunzio Collection, 1919-1920
15 items (0.1 linear foot)
Collection number: MS 763

Abstract:
An Italian poet, journalist, novelist, and dramatist, Gabriele D'Annunzio enjoyed a flamboyant career in international affairs after the First World War when he raised a small army and seized the port of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia). Failing in his attempts to annex his territory to Italy, D'Annunzio reigned as Duce over the micro-state for over a year before being forced to relinquish control.

The fifteen imprints comprising this collection of scarce broadsides, all printed in the short-lived Free State of Fiume. During the brief period of his reign in Fiume, D'Annunzio issued propagandistic broadsides, proclamations, and leaflets almost daily, often distributing them by airplane drop over the city. Included is a rare first edition of D'Annunzio's most famous piece from the Fiume period, Italia e vita.

Terms of Access and Use:

The collection is open for research.

Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries

Biographical Note
Seal of the city of Fiume.

Seal of the city of Fiume.

Renowned as a poet and novelist, journalist and dramatist, Gabriele D'Annunzio was considered one of Italy's brightest lights in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Born into a wealthy family of Dalmatian extraction in Pescaro (Abruzzo) in 1863, he enjoyed a life of intrigue and adventure, earning laurels as a powerful and original writer and dipping into politics while still in his thirties. At the peak of his literary fame during the years immediately preceding the First World War, however, he soon carved out a new role for himself as a hypernationalist and proto-Fascist.

Volunteering for wartime service as a fighter pilot, D'Annunzio lived up to his self-proclaimed status as Superman. As a squadron commander, he lost an eye in an accident, but his often outlandish bravado and dramatic gestures were cited as helping to raise the spirits of his fellow Italians during bleak times, winning him a hero's reputation. But that reputation was not sealed until the delicate task of dismembering the Austro-Hungarian empire came to pass after the end of the war, when D'Annunzio's already ardent nationalism was inflamed and he took direct political action.

Incensed by the proposed transfer away from Italy of the port of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) at the Paris Peace Conference, D'Annunzio raised a small force of Royal Italian army veterans, nationalists, and irredentists, and on September 12, 1919, seized the city and expelled the allied occupiers. When his plans to annex the territory to Italy were rebuffed, earning a blockade instead, he declared independence and established the Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) with himself as Duce. The government formed drew on a mix of anarchist and proto-Fascist ideas, but D'Annunzio's efforts to gain support for this quixotic enterprise were unavailing both internationally and regionally. After the Treaty of Rapallo in November 1920 resolved the dispute between the Italians and Serbs by declaring Fiume a Free State, D'Annunzio declared war on Italy, surrendering only after Fiume was bombarded by the Italian navy in December 1920.

Often seen as a harbinger of the Fascism to come in Iatly, D'Annunzio retired to his home after the affair in Fiume, surviving an assassination attempt in 1922. Although never again directly involved in politics, he was lauded by Mussolini and cited as a source and inspiration for the distinctive Fascist style in Italian politics. D'Annunzio died of a stroke in 1938.

Scope and contents of the collection

The fifteen imprints comprising this collection of scarce broadsides, all printed in the short-lived Free State of Fiume. During the brief period of his reign in Fiume, D'Annunzio issued propagandistic broadsides, proclamations, and leaflets almost daily, often distributing them by airplane drop over the city. Included is a rare first edition of D'Annunzio's most famous piece from the Fiume period, Italia e vita, and La Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro, a frame for the new government.


Information on Use
Terms of Access and Use
Restrictions on access:

The collection is open for research.

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Gabriele D'Annunzio Collection (MS 763). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries.

Alternative Formats Available

All material in the collection has been scanned and are available online through our digital repository, Credo.

History of the Collection

Acquired from Stephen Resnick, January 2013.

Processing Information

Processed by I. Eliot Wentworth, January 2013.


Additional Information
Contact Information
Special Collections and University Archives
W.E.B. Du Bois Library
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Amherst, MA 01003-9275

Phone: (413) 545-2780
Fax: (413) 577-1399
Link to SCUA
Language
Italian

Contents List
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Agli Italiani degli Stati Uniti
1919 ottubre 12
4p.
Box 1:1
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938 and Luigi Rizzo, Comando dell'esercito Italiano in Fiume d'Italia
1919 ottubre 18
1p.
Box 1:2
ca.1919
1p.
Box 1:3
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Italia e vita
1919 ottubre 24
4p.
Box 1:4
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, L'urna inesausta
191[9] dicembre 20
2p.
Box 1:5
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Alle donne di Fiume
ca.1919
1p.
Box 1:6
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Il sacco di Fiume
1920 gennaio 11
4p.
Box 1:7
1920 gennaio 11
4p.
Box 1:8
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Le brache di Cagoia
1920 gennaio 18
2p.
Box 1:9
1920 gennaio 20
1p.
Box 1:10
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, Il cavallo dell'apocalisse
1920 aprile 27
2p.
Box 1:11
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938, La riscosso dei Leoni
1920 giugno 15
1p.
Box 1:12
1920 agosto 27
11p.
Box 1:13
ca.1920
3p.
Box 1:14
ca.1920
2p.
Box 1:15

Search Terms
The following terms represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Use these headings to search for additional materials on this web site, in the Five College Library Catalog, or in other library catalogs and databases.

Subjects
  • Free State of Fiume--History--20th century.
  • Italy--History--1914-1922.
  • Rijeka (Croatia)--History--20th century.
  • World War, 1914-1918--Baltic States.
  • World War, 1914-1918--Italy.

Contributors
  • D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938.
  • Druscovich, Marco.
  • Zoll, Corrado.

Genre terms
  • Broadsides.
  • Fliers (Printed material).


Questions about this collection? Contact the archives
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