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Argentine Revolution Collection, 1921-1965 (Bulk: 1921-1922)
1 box (0.5 linear ft.)
Collection number: MS 353

Abstract:
Workers' revolt in Argentina, and the military and political response to it. Collection includes diaries and reports (military orders and maneuvers, geographical descriptions, personnel lists, reports on the development of the situation), correspondence, news clippings (political cartoons), and photographs (individual and group portraits, photos of the sites of destruction).

Terms of Access and Use:

The collection is open for research.

Special Collections and University Archives, W.E.B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Biographical Note

In November of 1921, when the price of wool dropped drastically, Argentine and Chilean farm workers, compelled by anarchist agitators, attacked various sheep ranchers in the province of Santa Cruz. The "Husares de Pueyrredon" was the name given to the cavalry that led the rescue of the ranches and their owners. The soldiers were brought together by Honorio Pueyrredon, the Minister of Agriculture and of Foreign Affairs and Culture, who staunchly opposed the political ideology of President Yrigoyen. Pueyrredon was also a major landowner and patrician who didn't want the power over the land to fall into the hands of the common people.

Scope and Contents of the Collection

This collection is comprised of diaries, reports, correspondence, news clippings and photographs relating to a workers' revolt in Argentina. Argentina's history in the first quarter of the 1900s was a time of great political and social upheaval. The uprising documented in this collection is a good example of the culmination of conflicting ideals during the years 1921 and 1922. President Hipolito Yrigoyen's Radical party was undermined by the Conservatives. When the Argentine army became supporters of the Conservatives, Yrigoyen was forced to allow this new coalition free reign to quell the activities of unions and workers' revolts.

The collection contains the war diaries of Lieutenant D. Hector B. Varela as well as diaries and reports of other cavalry officials from November 1921 to January 1922. They include military orders and maneuvers; geographical descriptions; personnel lists; and the reports on the continuing development of the situation. Also in the collection are newspaper clippings and political cartoons that reflect the opposing attitudes that existed concerning the outcome of the uprising. There are individual and group portraits of the soldiers as well as photographs of the sites of destruction during the conflict. The correspondence that took place after the repression of the upheaval illuminates the attitudes within the military about the situation and the men involved up until 1965. All of the materials in the collection are photocopied reproductions. The written materials have been transcribed and arranged chronologically.


Information on Use
Terms of Access and Use
Restrictions on access:

The collection is open for research.

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Argentine Revolution Collection (MS 353). Special Collections and University Archives, W.E.B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

History of the Collection

Acquired from Professor Robert Potash of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1988.

Custodial history:

The diaries and reports were published on January 11, 1922 in Magellan Times, a newspaper printed in Punta Arenas, Chile from 1914?-1932? Original copies of the newspaper are now available only at the British Library. The collection was the property of Robert Etchepareborda, the late Argentine diplomat, archivist and historian who served as Director of the Department of Culture for the United States and as Rector of the National University of the South in Argentina. The original materials are in the National Archives of Argentina. A copy of the collection was given to Professor Robert Potash of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst who donated it to the University archives in 1988.

Processing Information

Processed by Madeleine Charney, February 1991.


Additional Information
Contact Information
Special Collections and University Archives
W.E.B. Du Bois Library
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Amherst, MA 01003-9275

Phone: (413) 545-2780
Fax: (413) 577-1399
Link to SCUA
Language
English.
Sponsor
Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Series Descriptions
1921


Contains the chronological diaries of Lieutenant Colonel D. Hector B. Varela, Lieutenant D. Alfredo Anello, and Captains D. Pedro Vinas Ibarra and D. Pedro E. Campos. They discuss notable maneuvers, information received about the development of the situation on the sheep ranches, demographics, and detailed descriptions of the physical terrain. There is also a list of the location and residents of each sheep ranch in Santa Cruz. Transcriptions of telegrams sent among these officials are also included.

1921-1922


Contains an hour-by-hour update of the conflict's development written by Captain E. Carlos Anaya, Lieutenant Emilio Correa Morales, and Sublieutenants Federico Sidders and Rafael A. Loza. The reports of Morales and Anaya include a copy of the notice directed at the revolutionaries that was circulated among the sheep ranches. As the reports were written after the insurrection had been corrected, they also report death figures and proposals for restoring order to the ranches.

1922-1965


Contains letters written by various Argentine military officials from January 22, 1922 to September 26, 1965. The earlier letters commend the army's brave acts to combat sedition and include proposals for distributing awards of merit to the leaders. Also included is correspondence between Captain Ibarra and Lieutenant Colonel Varela regarding the opinion of the Senior President of the Nation about their work in Santa Cruz. A few years later, a letter to Captain Anaya discusses the idea of unity among the provinces. At the end of this series there is correspondence between Captain Anaya and Juan Enrique Gugliamelli, Director of the Center of High Studies and of the Superior School of War, in which they discuss the ongoing tribute paid to the uprising in Santa Cruz. Other letters between the two reveal that Gugliamelli produces conferences and lectures that deal with the part of history that Captain Anaya experienced first hand.

1922


Contains articles from El Soldado Argentine, a newspaper printed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This publication strongly supports the actions of the army against the insurrections in Patagonia in 1921-1922. The paper refers to the workers as "bandits". There is a reference made to the printing of the war diaries in the Magellan Times. A portrait and other photographs of Lieutenant Colonel. Varela's burial site along with an obituary is also included. The political cartoons are mostly targeted at Yrigoyen's policies. There is also one page from an unidentifiable publication which supports the plight of the workers involved in the uprising, calling it a massacre.

1921-1922


Contains a variety of group photographs featuring the officials from the 2nd regiment. Also included are photographs of various ranches that had been vandalized and revolutionaries who were captured and held prisoner by the cavalry.

Contents List
Series 1. Dairies from the 10th Regiment
1921


Introduction, General Information, Geographical list of area
1921

Box 1:1
Diary of Lt. Varela and personnel list
1921

Box 1:2
Diary of Capt. Ibarra
1921

Box 1:3
Diary of Capt. Campos
1921

Box 1
Diary of Lt. Anello
1921

Box 1
Series 2. Diaries and Reports from the 2nd Regiment
1921-1922


Diary of Capt. Anaya and personnel list
1921

Box 1:4-5
Copy of folders 4 and 5
1921

Box 1:6
Diary of Sublt. Sidders
1921

Box 1:7
Copy (signed by Sublt. Loza)
1921

Box 1
Report from Lt. Morales
1922

Box 1:8
Report from Capt. Anaya
1922

Box 1
Copy of Anaya report (folder 8)
1922

Box 1:9
Series 3. Correspondence
1922-1965


Correspondence
1922-1965

Box 1:10
Series 4. News Clippings
1922


Articles, political cartoons, obituaries
1922

Box 1:11
Series 5. Photographs
1921-1922


Army portraits, group shots, sites of uprisings
1921-1922

Box 1:12

Search Terms
The following terms represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Use these headings to search for additional materials on this web site, in the Five College Library Catalog, or in other library catalogs and databases.

Subjects
  • Argentina--History--1910-1943--Sources.


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