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YWCA of the U.S.A. Records. Record Group 06. Program: Series VII. War Work and Defense Services, 1870-2002
Collection number: 324_rg6_s7

This series includes records related to the National Associations work during World War I and World War II, and with defense industries after WWII. Forms part of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records. Record Group 6. Program.

Terms of Access and Use:

Restrictions on access:

The records are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection without any additional restrictions.

Access to audiovisual materials may first require production of research copies.

Restrictions on use:

The YWCA of the USA retains copyright ownership of the records, but has authorized the Sophia Smith Collection to grant permission to publish reproductions or quotations from the records on its behalf.

Copyright to materials authored by persons other than YWCA staff may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights for permission to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Sophia Smith Collection
Smith College
Northampton, MA

Scope and contents of the collection
YWCA Land Service Poster, 1918

YWCA Land Service Poster, 1918

Forms part of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records--Record Group 6. Program.

NOTE: For the most part, the Microfilmed Records and the Original Format Records do not duplicate each other and both should be consulted. This description covers materials in both formats. See the Contents List for a folder-level inventory of the Original Format Records. See the Microfilmed Records Reel Lists for a detailed inventory of the microfilm.

This Series is divided into three Subseries:



When the U.S. entered World War I, the YWCA joined the "Committee of Eleven" organizations that banded together as the United War Work Campaign, Inc., to raise and distribute funds to aid war relief efforts at home and abroad. (Though the group originally included eleven organizations, that number eventually settled at seven, including the American Library Association, YMCA, YWCA, National Catholic War Council, Knights of Columbus, Jewish Welfare Board, Salvation Army, and War Camp Community Service.)

As the only women's organization in the Campaign, the YWCA's charge was to meet the special needs of women and girls affected by the war. The YWCA raised money, recruited war workers, expanded its existing work in places which already had YWCAs and constructed new facilities in other places, such as camps and bases where soldiers were mobilized and centers where young women were mobilized for agricultural, industrial, and government work.

The War Work Council established Industrial War Service Centers or "blue triangle" houses in the U.S. and Foyers des Allees in France where women working in war industries could meet, get good food, relax, entertain guests and participate in wholesome recreation. It also built Hostess Houses where servicemen could visit with their wives, mothers, and friends. Work in these centers continued through the period of active conflict, and the following influenza epidemic and demobilization.

Due to the perceived inappropriateness of white women providing recreational services for Black servicemen and industrial women, the YWCA established separate "colored" Industrial Service Centers and Hostess Houses. The was "made evident the deplorable lack of facilities for recreation and amusement" of African-American women and girls who were entering industry in large numbers. In response, the National Association facilitated a substantial expansion of the number of "Colored" Associations and Branches in cities. This dramatic increase of staff and program for African-Americans, was directed from the national office by Eva Bowles and the War Work Council's Colored Work Committee. A national staff which had consisted of two Black secretaries in 1917, grew to thirteen in 1919. At the local level, the number of "Colored" Branches increased from sixteen to forty-nine and secretaries from nine to ninety-nine.

World War I precipitated a significant increase in both the size and complexity of the national program of "Work with Foreign-Born Women." The war changed American attitudes toward its immigrant population, suddenly making "every foreign home a place of dread and fear and suspicion." (Edith Terry Bremer, Report to War Work Council, 17 October 1917)

Noting that the effects of the war were even more severe for foreign-born women, what had been essentially a northeastern U.S. operation, was nationalized. Multi-lingual secretaries were hired for Port Work, meeting immigrant women at points of intake on the east and west coasts. Staff of a new International Information and Service Bureau translated all kinds of technical materials and wrote speeches and information sheets in a variety of languages "upon all matters for which they are needing help." Other secretaries did Emergency Field work to help speed the opening of new International Institutes for young women of all nationalities. A Bureau was established to help in locating refugee relatives in Europe and the YWCA provided "home service" for the families of enlisted men. To facilitate all this new work and reconstruction work in Europe, the YWCA established training programs for foreign community workers and reconstruction volunteers.

Other War Work Council Committees coordinated programs to find housing for women workers who had left home to work at camps and in industry, for women agricultural workers, and for matching volunteer workers with jobs. The Committee on Organization and Extension of Regular Work analyzed where special war work could connected with the regular city work. Staff specialists in topics such as Recreation and Pageantry and Drama, helped Community Associations develop classes and activities for relaxation during uncertain times.

The YWCA's Bureau of Social Morality, formed in 1913, was a corps of women medical doctors trained to give sex education lectures. Concerned in particular about young women in the communities adjacent to army camps, the YWCA recruited and trained many more speakers who delivered over 2,000 lectures in 1917-18. During reconstruction, the YWCA enlarged the Bureau's mission to include lectures on general health topics, such as nutrition and hygiene, and rechristened it the Bureau of Social Education.

The U.S. YWCA did similar work overseas during the war in Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, the Near East, Poland, Romania, and Russia. War workers established centers "to help keep women fit for their work" by providing opportunities for rest, relaxation, and a good meal at a reasonable price. A special group of "Polish Gray Samaritans" served as nurses' aides for Polish soldiers fighting in France. Once the war was over the focus of the work shifted to reconstruction and aid for refugees. The "Polish Grays" concentrated their efforts in Poland.

After the Armistice, the Continuation Committee (1919-22) and the Post-Continuation Committee (1921-22) kept much of the work begun by the War Work Council going using War Fund money.

The rapid expansion of the War Work significantly changed the YWCA. It experienced what was described as fifteen years' growth in two. Many new Community Associations and Branches were formed and the existing emphasis of the work in many Associations changed, particularly in response to the influx of Industrial Club members. With the new members came increased expectations of "democratic control of Association policies and program." At the national level, the rapid increase put a huge emphasis on recruitment and training of staff, greatly increased the use of publications to "interpret" the Association, and dramatically broadened its program, both in size and scope. Sustaining such an organization proved impossible once the war was over.

Scope and Content

Records related to the World War I era work include minutes, reports, and other records of the War Work Council and its many committees; files on the Hostess House program and on individual Hostess Houses; publications; texts of lectures given at a training course for volunteer workers in September 1917; organization files; and various small collections of correspondence, memorabilia, and scrapbooks donated to the National Board Archives by war workers.

The War Work had such a major impact on the work of YWCA that the records are central to understanding the growth and development of the organization. The wide-ranging effects can be seen in the kinds of work the Association did, its techniques, processes, policies, and even its size.

Microfilmed Records, 1917-23

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The Microfilmed Records are much more extensive than those that survive in original format. Unfortunately, reel 152 of the microfilm (Woman's Movement in Labor - World War I, A- Hostess Houses, Fort Benjamin, Indiana) was lost prior to transfer to the Sophia Smith Collection and most of the records on that reel were discarded after filming.

World War I records can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • World War I
  • Subject Files
    • World War I

Original Format Records, 1917-39, n.d., 6.5 linear feet

[see Original Format Records folder list]

The Minutes and Reports and a small selection of Subject File records were not discarded after microfilming and can be examined in original format. Other materials are only available on the microfilm.

Correspondence, memorabilia, and scrapbooks donated to the YWCA Archives by war workers are only available in original format. They are filed in the Miscellaneous section at the end of the Subseries. The Original Format Records are arranged as follows:

The Original Format Records are arranged as follows:

  • War Work Council
    • General and History
    • WWC and Executive Committee minutes
    • Commission to France
    • Committees
    • Conference
    • Publications
    • Training Course
  • Organizations
  • Miscellaneous
  • Oversize

Related Materials

Minutes and reports of all other departments and the National Board contain additional information about the War Work.

In other Series in this Record Group

Extensive coverage of the World War I work is in The AssociationMonthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine in SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS.

In other Record Groups

Records about the sale of properties acquired for War Work can be found in RECORD GROUP 3. NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE in SERIES III. BUILDINGS AND PROPERTIES.

The World War I work was documented extensively in photographs. These can be found in RECORD GROUP 9. PHOTOGRAPHS.

Some information about World War I properties, Centers, and Hostess Houses can be found in the Local Associations Files on the Microfilm. See RECORD GROUP 8. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS, SERIES IV.

In Personal Papers

Personal Papers of Kate Hillis Boyd Papers, Carolyn Adelia Boynton, Bessie Boies Cotton, Elizabeth Dickerson, Clara Taylor, and Ruth Woodsmall.


As had been the case in World War I, the YWCA joined with other organizations to raise money and coordinate "civilian war service projects." Six agencies, the Child Welfare League, Family Welfare Association, National Institute of Immigrant Welfare, National Organization of Public Health Nursing, National Urban League, and YWCA, formed American War-Community Services, Inc. (AW-CS). to provide services to workers in war industries and to civilians left behind. AW-CS presented a combined appeal to War Chests and took responsibility for disbursing funding to member agencies for approved war service projects. After the war, the AW-CS agencies formed a new organization with similar aims called "United Community Defense Services." [see Subseries C. Defense Services]

The YWCA also joined the YMCA, National Catholic Community Service, Salvation Army, National Traveler's Aid Association, and Jewish Welfare Board to form the United Service Organizations, Inc. (USO), "to serve those affected by the war." The type of work done by the YWCA was similar to its work during World War I, including rest and relaxation centers and services for women workers, servicemen, and war wives.

The National Association also worked with its membership to "mobilize woman power for community service" and raised funds for its World Emergency and War Victims Fund to aid war relief overseas.

When the U.S. Government ordered the evacuation of all Japanese-Americans from coastal areas, the YWCA monitored the situation closely, looking for opportunities to help the hundreds of its members who were affected by the relocations. After years of working on "social integration" in Japanese-American communities, it was "accepted as a matter of course that the YWCA would go wherever they went."

After initial resistance on the part of the government to having private social agencies operating in the relocation centers, the National Association worked with its interned Japanese-American staff and members to establish YWCAs in the relocation centers. Here the YWCA set up counseling, recreation, group activities, educational opportunities, and service work for the young women interned there.

In addition to direct assistance in the Relocation Centers, the YWCA worked to sway public opinion, and pressure the government to provide decent care and protection of people and their property. It also advocated for hearing boards which would allow Japanese-Americans to establish loyalty thereby creating a mechanism for release from internment and for citizens' rights legislation. After the war, the National Association provided "factual and interpretive" information to Community Associations to urge them to assist in Japanese-American resettlement.

Scope and Content

This Subseries contains general historical materials (including a 1945 dissertation, "The Nisei in Denver, Colorado: A Study of Personality Adjustment and Disorganization" by Dorothy Takechi, a YWCA staff member who worked in the Granada Relocation Center); committee records, clippings, correspondence, minutes and reports, subject and organization files.

The Japanese Evacuee Project records include illuminating reports by Japanese-American YWCA staff and members, visitation reports by other YWCA staff, and such things as literary magazines, newsletters, and conference reports produced by Relocation Center internees.

Records of the YWCA's USO activities are described in Subseries C below because the YWCA's affiliation with the USO continued for many years after the war.

Microfilmed Records, 1942-48, n.d.

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The Microfilmed Records are more extensive than those that survive in original format. They include minutes, reports, publications, organizations files, and subject files. They can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • World War II
  • Subject Files
    • National Defense
    • War Work-World War II

Original Format Records, 1937-48, n.d., 4 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The Minutes and Reports and a substantial selection of Subject File records (primarily records of the Japanese Evacuee Project) were not discarded after microfilming, other materials are only available on the microfilm.

Related Materials

In other Subseries in this Series

World War II USO records are described in the Subseries C. Defense Services below, because the YWCA's affiliation with USO continued for many years after the war.

In other Series in this Record Group

The AssociationMonthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine in SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS of RECORD GROUP 6 is an excellent source for most topics.

In other Record Groups

Because it was the "representative and executive" committee of the National Association, the National Board's minutes should also be consulted. See RECORD GROUP 2.


After World War II, the YWCA continued its activities "on behalf of men and women of the Armed Forces and their families, and workers in defense industries." A fundraising brochure titled "National Defense and the YWCA" cites the outbreak of war in Korea in the summer of 1950 as the point at which "it became evident…that the U.S. would for many years be forced to maintain a large army." The YWCA's part in this effort consisted of continued participation in the USO, involvement in the successor organization to American War-Community Services, the United Community Defense Services (UCDS), and the United Defense Fund. The National Association established a Defense Services Department in 1950 to coordinate these efforts.

UCDS, was formed in the fall of 1950 to "assist in the development of essential health and welfare services to people in communities which are unable to cope adequately with defense-created needs." The YWCA was one of fifteen participating agencies working to help new residents in rapidly growing cities and towns adjacent to defense industries. The aim was to fill gaps in services for a relatively brief period until the cities and towns were able to do so.

Formed during World War II, United Service Organizations, Inc., (USO), was a cooperative national program of morale, recreation, and religious work for men in the armed forces and for men and women in defense industries. It was an effort to "provide such activities, facilities, and leadership as will recreate in the community near the camp or industrial center the best of normal life and influence that prevails in the communities from which the men come." It was also a united campaign to raise funds for financing the program.

By the late 1950s, UCDS had disbanded and the YWCA's Defense Services Department became the USO Division.

By the mid 1970s, the USO's founding agencies began to express concern that the "central structure [of the USO] had grown at the expense of agency participation" and that they no longer had meaningful involvement in the organization. When the USO cut all funding to defray the costs of participation as of January 1, 1977, most of the member agencies, including the YWCA, voted to withdraw from the organization.

Administrative History
1950-54Defense Services Department in Community Division
1955-57Defense Services Department
1958-71USO Division

Scope and Content

This Subseries contains general historical materials, minutes, reports, publications, and conference files. The reports tend to have useful source materials attached as exhibits. The bulk of the records relate to USO work, 1940-77.

Microfilmed Records, 1942-70

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The Microfilm has early records of USO activities in the Subject Files under War Work, World War II and a few later items under U.S.O.

Original Format Records, 1937-77, n.d., 4.5 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The Original Format Records contain a small amount of general information about UCDS and some general historical information on the YWCA's overall Defense Services activities, but are primarily records of YWCA participation in USO.

Related Materials

Elsewhere in the Record Group

Records related to advocacy to end race discrimination in the armed forces and forced relocation and resettlement of Japanese-Americans are in SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY.

The AssociationMonthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine in SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS is an excellent source for most topics.

In other Record Groups

There are additional USO files in the Organizations files in SERIES I of RECORD GROUP 3. NATIONAL ADMINSTRATIVE OFFICE.

Photographs of Defense Services work are in RECORD GROUP 9. PHOTOGRAPHS

Because it was the "representative and executive" committee of the National Association, the National Board's minutes should also be consulted. See RECORD GROUP 2.

In Personal Papers

The Sophia Smith Collection holds personal papers of a number of YWCA women who worked closely with the USO, these include: Polly Feustal, Virginia Heim George, Ina Ruth Hillis Lackey, and Elisabeth Luce Moore.

In other repositories

Additional Records of the YWCA's USO work are in the Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota.

Information on Use
Terms of Access and Use
Restrictions on access:

The records are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection without any additional restrictions.

Access to audiovisual materials may first require production of research copies.

Restrictions on use:

The YWCA of the USA retains copyright ownership of the records, but has authorized the Sophia Smith Collection to grant permission to publish reproductions or quotations from the records on its behalf.

Copyright to materials authored by persons other than YWCA staff may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights for permission to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Preferred Citation

Please use the following format when citing materials from this collection:

YWCA of the U.S.A. Records, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.

Additional Formats

A copy of the microfilmed records of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records is available to borrow from the William Allan Neilson Library at Smith College via Interlibrary Loan.

To request the microfilm from our library you will need to submit the following information to your library's Interlibrary Loan department:

  • Author: Young Women's Christian Association of the U.S.A. National Board
  • Title: Records, 1876-1970 [microform]
  • WorldCat Accession Number: OCLC 57415795
  • Notes: "Call # 689" and reel number(s) you want to borrow

Full descriptions and reel lists of the microfilm are available online.

History of the Collection

The YWCA of the U.S.A. donated a portion of its records to the Sophia Smith Collection in 1964 and the remainder in 2002 and 2003.

Processing Information

Processed by Maida Goodwin, Amy Hague, Kara McClurken, Amanda Izzo, 2008 FY 07-08

Record Groups

Additional Information
Contact Information
Smith College Special Collections
Young Library
4 Tyler Drive
Northampton, MA 01063

Phone: (413) 585-2970
Fax: (413) 585-2886

Processing of the YWCA Records was made possible by the generous support of the National Historical Records and Publications Commission and the estate of Elizabeth Norris.
Contents List


This is the Contents List for the Original Format Records only. The reel lists for the Microfilmed Records are in a separate file. See Scope and Content note for more description.

Subseries A. World War I

War Work Council

General and History, 1918, 1932-39, n.d.

Box 702: folder 1
Minutes, May 1917-Oct 1919

Box 702: folder 2-6
Executive Committee: minutes, May 1917-Oct 1919

Box 702: folder 7-15
Commission to survey YWCA work in France, 1918

Box 703: folder 1

Bureau of Social Education: leaflets series, circa 1919

Box 703: folder 2
Colored Work

General, 1918-22, n.d.

Box 703: folder 3

General, 1917-20, n.d.

Box 703: folder 4
Josephine Pinyon, 1917-18, n.d.

Box 703: folder 5
The Work of Colored Women compiled by Jane Olcott, [1919]

Box 703: folder 6
Construction and Equipment: minutes, 1917-18

Box 703: folder 7
Continuation and Post-Continuation: minutes, 1919-22

Box 703: folder 8-11

Minutes, 1917-19

Box 703: folder 12-14
Report: Financial Statement, 1918-19

Box 703: folder 15
Hostess House

General, 1918-19, n.d.

Box 703: folder 16-17


Box 703: folder 18

Box 704: folder 1-6
Report of the Hostess House Committee, 1919

Box 704: folder 7
[Emergency] Housing

General by location, 1919-21

Box 704: folder 8

1917-Jun 1921

Box 704: folder 9-15
Jul-Dec 1921

Box 705: folder 1-2
Report: "Suggestions for Housing Women War Workers made to the Secretary of War by the Housing Committee of the YWCA," Jan 1918

Box 705: folder 3

General, 1918-19, n.d.

Box 705: folder 4-5
Industrial War Service Centers/Clubs, 1918-23, n.d.

Box 705: folder 6


Box 705: folder 7
An Industrial Notebook, 1919

Box 705: folder 8-9
Reports, 1917-20, n.d.

Box 706: folder 1
Research Section, 1919

Box 706: folder 2
Junior War Work Council: minutes, 1917-18

Box 706: folder 3
Land Service: minutes and reports, 1918

Box 706: folder 4
Organization and Extension of Regular Work

Minutes, Nov 1917-20

Box 706: folder 5-10
Reports by City/Town, 1919-21

Box 706: folder 11-14
Overseas Committee and Overseas Subcommittee on Appointments

General: Emergency Services: A Statement of the Services Rendered by the Overseas Committee of the American YWCA in Ten Countries During and Following World War I, ca. 1940

Box 707: folder 1
Minutes, Dec 1918-20

Box 707: folder 2-4

Final report, 1917-20

Box 707: folder 5
General, 1918-20

Box 707: folder 6
Belgium, 1919

Box 707: folder 7
Czecho-Slovakia, 1919-20

Box 707: folder 8-9

General, 1917-20, n.d.

Box 707: folder 10

1917-Apr 1919

Box 707: folder 11-17
Jun 1919-1920, n.d.

Box 708: folder 1-3
"Summer Camps of the YWCA in France," 1919

Box 708: folder 4
Italy, 1919-20

Box 708: folder 5
Near East (Armenia, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon), 1919-20

Box 708: folder 6
Poland, 1919-20

Box 708: folder 7
Romania, 1919-20

Box 708: folder 8

Miscellaneous, 1917-20

Box 708: folder 9-10
Archangel, 1918-19

Box 708: folder 11
Representative in Scandinavia, 1919-20

Box 708: folder 12
Siberian Unit, 1919-20

Box 708: folder 13
Pageantry and Drama, 1919

Box 708: folder 14
Publicity Committee: broadsides, n.d.

Box 708: folder 15
Social Morality Committee

Minutes and reports, 1918-19, n.d.

Box 708: folder 16
[Final] Report, Jun 1917-Jul 1919

Box 708: folder 17
Pamphlets and brochures, 1917-18, n.d.

Box 708: folder 18
Uniforms Committee, n.d.

Box 709: folder 1
Volunteer Workers Bureau

General, 1918, n.d.

Box 709: folder 2
Conference, Jun 1919

Box 709: folder 3
Minutes and reports, Dec 1917-May 1919

Box 709: folder 4-7
Work for Foreign-Born Women

General, 1918, n.d.

Box 709: folder 8
Minutes, 1917-20

Box 709: folder 9-10

Summary, 1917, 1919-20

Box 709: folder 11

Miscellaneous, 1919

Box 709: folder 12
Bird, Ethel, 1918-19

Box 709: folder 13
Bradley, Ernestine C., 1919

Box 709: folder 14
Bremer, Edith Terry, 1917-19

Box 709: folder 15
Clark, Elizabeth W., 1919

Box 709: folder 16
Crawford, Ruth, 1918

Box 709: folder 17
Griel, Cecile, L., 1918-19

Box 709: folder 18
Daykin, Anne B., 1918-19

Box 709: folder 19
Hannah, Margaret, 1917-19

Box 709: folder 20
Klotz, Justine, 1918-19

Box 709: folder 21
Lowenstein, Alice Lili, 1919

Box 709: folder 22
Rodakiewicz, Erla, 1919

Box 709: folder 23
[Stanoyevich], Beatrice Stevenson, 1918-19

Box 709: folder 24
Vaughn, Villa Curran (Mrs. T.H.), 1918-19

Box 709: folder 25
Walkinshaw, Ruth, 1919

Box 709: folder 26
Research and Information Section

"American Press Information," Jan-Jul 1919

Box 709: folder 27
"Snap-shots of Some Folk With Whom We Neighbor" by Ruth Walkinshaw, 1918

Box 709: folder 28
Polish Gray Samaritans Training School (aka Training School for Old Country Service)

General, 1918-19

Box 709: folder 29
Minutes, 1918-19

Box 709: folder 30-31
Reports, 1918-19, n.d.

Box 710: folder 1-2
Newspaper clippings, 1918-20

Box 710: folder 3
Press releases, 1918-20

Box 710: folder 4
Report, 1919

Box 710: folder 5
Student evaluations and correspondence, 1919-33

Box 710: folder 6
Conference, 6-7 Jun 1917

Box 710: folder 7-8

General, 1917-19

Box 710: folder 9
War Work Bulletin, Aug 1917-Sep 1919

Box 710: folder 10-17
Blue Triangle News, Oct 1919-1920

Box 710: folder 18-19
Y.W.C.A .Bulletin (published in France by YWCA of the USA), 1918-19

Box 710: folder 20
Training Course, 6-15 Sep 1917

Anderson, Esther(?), "Our Work With Other Girls"

Box 711: folder 1
Baker, Oren C., "Travelers' Aid Society"

Box 711: folder 2
Bowles, Eva D., "The Colored Girl in This Country"

Box 711: folder 3
Bremer, Edith Terry, "Immigration and Foreign Community Work" and "Our Work Among Foreign Women"

Box 711: folder 4
Brown, Anna, "Our Social Morality Work"

Box 711: folder 5
Conde, Bertha "Personal Work with Girls" and "Our Work in Student Centers"

Box 711: folder 6
Cratty, Mabel, "The Genius of the Young Women's Christian Association"

Box 711: folder 7
Davis, Helen, "The National War Work Council"

Box 711: folder 8
Davis, Katharine

Box 711: folder 9
Gogin, Gertrude, "The National Service Commission"

Box 711: folder 10
Haynes, Rowland, "Recreation Work"

Box 711: folder 11
Holmquist, Louise, "The County Association"

Box 711: folder 12
Miner, Maude, "Probation Work"

Box 711: folder 13
Schaefer, Vera, "The Relationship of our Community Work with the Hostess House"

Box 711: folder 14
Simms, Florence, "The Girl in Industry"

Box 711: folder 15
Speer, (Mrs. Robert E.), "The Spiritual Significance Underlying Our Work"

Box 711: folder 16
Thomas, Helen, "Educational Work of the Association"

Box 711: folder 17
Williamson, Margaret, "Planning With Our Workers to Meet the Problem of Employment"

Box 711: folder 18

Committee of Eleven, United War Work Campaign, Inc.

Articles of Incorporation and By laws, 1918

Box 711: folder 19
Minutes, 1918-19, 1921

Box 711: folder 20-21
General War-Time Commission of the Churches, Federal Council of Churches

General, n.d.

Box 711: folder 22
Minutes, 1917-19

Box 711: folder 23-26
Industrial Commission [to Europe], spring 1919

General, 1919

Box 711: folder 27
Background information, 1918-19, n.d.

Box 711: folder 28
Notes and drafts, 1919

Box 711: folder 29
Report, 1919

Box 711: folder 30
Publications, Womans Press

The Challenge of the Present Crisis by Harry Emerson Fosdick, 1917

Box 712: folder 1
Madame France by R. Louise Fitch, 1919

Box 712: folder 2
Mobilizing Woman Power by Harriot Stanton Blatch, 1918

Box 712: folder 3

Hutchinson, Margaret: correspondence to family from United War Work Campaign in New Mexico, fall 1918

Box 712: folder 4
James, Genevieve

Manuscript chapter re supervising Hostess Houses in southeastern U.S., n.d.

Box 712: folder 5
Scrapbook (disassembled 1988), 1917-19

Box 712: folder 6-10
Ogden, Helen: typescript letters to family from Russia, 1917-18

Box 712: folder 11
Sehon, Clarette

Box 713
Biographical and general

Box 713: folder 1
Correspondence to family from France, Mar 1919-Jun 1920

Box 713: folder 2-10
Tunnell, Winifred: miscellaneous memorabilia and clippings from work in France, 1918, n.d.

Box 713: folder 11
Miscellaneous memorabilia

Box 713: folder 12

Ellington Field (Texas) Hostess House scrapbook, 1917-18

Box 714
War Work Council, Committee on Work for Foreign-Born Women, Polish Gray Samaritan Training School

Box 715

Box 715: folder 1

Box 715: folder 2
Subseries B. World War II

General and History

Box 715
General, 1939-54, n.d.

Box 716: folder 1-2
Alien registration and legislation, 1940-45, n.d.

Box 716: folder 3
Bibliography "Origins of the European War," Oct 1939

Box 716: folder 4
Conference: "The Role of Women in the War Effort," 24 Sep 1942

Box 716

Box 716: folder 5

Box 716: folder 6-7
Index to actions taken related to National Defense in the minutes of the National Board and Executive Committee, Jan 1937-Dec 1952

Box 716: folder 8

[see also USO in Subseries C. Defense Services]

General, 1942, n.d.

Box 716: folder 9
Program materials, 1942-45

Box 716: folder 10
Women Behind the Lines: YWCA Program with War Production Workers, 1940-47 by Brooks Spivey Creedy, TWP, 1949

Box 716: folder 11

General, 1948, n.d.

Box 717: folder 1
Round-the-World YWCA Reconstruction Fund, 1946-48, n.d.

Box 717: folder 2-5
Study of Women's Dormitories, 1944

Box 717: folder 6

Europe YWCA Emergency Committee (1940)/YWCA World Emergency Fund Committee (1941-42)/World Emergency and War Victims Fund Committee (1943-46)/World Emergency Fund Committee (1947-49)

Minutes, 1941-49

Box 717: folder 7-13
Financial, 1943-45

Box 717: folder 14
on Refugees

General, 1938-50

Box 717: folder 15-16
Bulletin, 1938-39

Box 717: folder 17
Minutes, 1941-45

Box 717: folder 18-21
Publications, 1940-43

Box 717: folder 22
Questionnaire to YWCA Industrial Club members, 1940-41

Box 717: folder 23
Reference materials, 1938-41, n.d.

Box 717: folder 24

Refugees in the U.S., 1945

Box 717: folder 25
Final Report, Committee on Refugees, circa 1945

Box 717: folder 26
Secretary reports, 1938-40

Box 717: folder 27
Postwar Reconstruction Leadership Counselling Group, 1942-43

Box 718: folder 1
on Women Workers, 1942

Box 718: folder 2
YWCA Volunteers in Civilian Defense, 1942-43

Box 718: folder 3
American War-Community Services, Inc.

General, 1943-46, n.d.

Box 718: folder 4-5
Board of Directors, 1943-47

Box 718: folder 6-7
Institute, Jan 1945

Box 718: folder 8

General, 1943-47

Box 718: folder 9
War-Community Service Committee, 1943-46

Box 718: folder 10
Staff meetings, 1943-44

Box 718: folder 11

Annual , 1943-46

Box 718: folder 12-14
Final, 1943-46

Box 718: folder 15
Local, 1943-46


Box 718: folder 16

Box 718: folder 17-18

Box 718: folder 19

Box 718: folder 20

Box 718: folder 21

Box 719: folder 1

Box 719: folder 2

Box 719: folder 3

Box 719: folder 4

Box 719: folder 5

Box 719: folder 6

Box 719: folder 7
New Jersey

Box 719: folder 8
New York

Box 719: folder 9
North Carolina

[see also Kentucky]

Box 719: folder 10

Box 719: folder 11

Box 719: folder 12

[Pennsylvania, see Ohio]


[see also Kentucky]

Box 719: folder 13-14

Box 719: folder 15

Box 719: folder 16
West Virginia

Box 719: folder 17
Miscellaneous, 1942-44

Box 719: folder 18
Japanese Evacuee Project



Box 719: folder 19-23
1943-46, n.d.

Box 720: folder 1-5
Clippings scrapbooks (photocopies), 1942-45

Scrapbooks 2 and 3: Denver, Colorado, press clippings

Box 720: folder 6-7
Scrapbook 4: metropolitan New York press

Box 720: folder 8
Scrapbook 5: California press

Box 720: folder 9
Scrapbook 6: magazine articles

Box 720: folder 10
Dissertation: "The Nisei in Denver, Colorado: A Study of Personality Adjustment and Disorganization" by Dorothy Kuniko Takechi, Fisk University, 1945

Box 721: folder 1
Paper: "Behind Barbed Wire: The YWCA in the Japanese Internment Camps, 1942-46" by Rebecca Dobkins, UMass History 389, 1982

Box 721: folder 2
Summary Report by Esther Briesemeister, 1942-46

Box 721: folder 3
Committees (multi-organization in which YWCA participated)

Committee on Resettlement of Japanese Americans/Committee on Administration of Japanese Work, 1942-46

Box 721: folder 4-6
Protestant Church Commission for Japanese Service, 1942-45

Box 721: folder 7-8
YMCA-YWCA Coordinating Committee on Services to Persons of Japanese Ancestry, 1944-45

Box 721: folder 9
Japanese American Citizens League, Special Emergency National Conference: minutes and supplement, Nov 1942

Box 721: folder 10-11
Local Associations

Miscellaneous, 1943-44

Box 721: folder 12

Miscellaneous, 1941-45

Box 721: folder 13
Los Angeles, 1942-46

Box 721: folder 14-17
Colorado: Denver, 1942-47

Box 722: folder 1-2
Minnesota, 1944

Box 722: folder 3
New Jersey, 1944

Box 722: folder 4
Ohio, 1944

Box 722: folder 5
Oregon, 1942

Box 722: folder 6
Washington, 1942-46

Box 722: folder 7
Student relocation, 1942-46

Box 722: folder 8
U.S. Department of the Interior, War Relocation Authority, Japanese Relocation Centers


1942-Oct 1943

Box 722: folder 9-10
Nov 1943-46, n.d.

Box 722: folder 11-13
Abstracts, ca. 1942

Box 722: folder 14
Community Analysis Notes, 1944-45

Box 722: folder 15
Community Analysis Reports


Box 722: folder 16

Box 723: folder 1
Quarterly Reports, 1942

Box 723: folder 2
YWCA Cooperation

General, 1942-46

Box 723: folder 3-4

Gila River (Rivers, AZ)

Box 723: folder 5-7
Poston (Poston, AZ)

Box 723: folder 8-9

Jerome (Denson, AR)

Box 723: folder 10
Rohwer (McGeehee, AR)

[see also Jerome]

Box 723: folder 11-12

Manzanar (Manzanar, CA)

Box 723: folder 13-17
Tule Lake (Newell, CA)

Box 724: folder 1-8
Colorado: Granada (Amache, CO)

Box 724: folder 9-14
Idaho: Minidoka (Hunt, ID)

Box 724: folder 15-17
Texas: Crystal City (Crystal City, TX)

Box 724: folder 18-19
Utah: Central Utah (Topaz, UT)

Box 724: folder 20-22
Wyoming: Heart Mountain (Heart Mountain, WY)

Box 724: folder 23-25

Japanese Evacuee Project: clippings scrapbooks numbers 2-6, originals

[DO NOT USE--use photocopies in box 720]

Box 725
Duplicate photocopies of scrapbooks 2 and 3

Box 725
Subseries C. Defense Services

General and History

Miscellaneous, 1937, 1952

Box 726: folder 1
"History of the Defense Services, National Board YWCA" by Mary Sims, 1950-57

Vol. I-II

Box 726: folder 2-4
Vol. III-V

Box 727: folder 1-3
"A Study of the Organized Junior Hostess Programs in the Defense Services Department of the YWCA and the Armed Services Department of the YMCA" by Mildred Luli Bair, 1956 George Williams College M.S. thesis

Box 728: folder 1
United Service Organizations (USO)

General and History

General, 1940-74 , n.d.

Box 728: folder 2-4
Constitution and By-laws, 1941

Box 728: folder 5

25th, 1965-66

Box 728: folder 6
Guest book, 1966, 1971

Box 728: folder 7
"Preliminary Material for the History of USO, Part II, Feb 10, 1941 to Pearl Harbor" by Julia M.H. Carson, 1945

Box 729: folder 1-3
"USO in Skagway, Alaska, 1943-44" by Jane Hope Hastings, 1993

Box 729: folder 4
Manual: "Community Conducted Operations," May 1943

Box 729: folder 5
Reports, 1941-53, n.d.

Box 729: folder 6
YWCA Cooperation



Box 729: folder 7-11
1960-77, n.d.

Box 730: folder 1-2
Articles (unpublished) re USO by Genevieve James, 1941

Box 730: folder 3
"History of the Participation of the YWCA in the USO [to June 1944]" by Emma P. Hirth

Box 730: folder 4-15
Commendation, 1945-46

Box 730: folder 16

War Production Workers, Nov 1944 (training conferences for YWCA staff in war production areas)

Notebook of records, 1944-45

Box 731: folder 1-6
Reports from local associations collected for conference planning, 1944

Solicitation letter and summaries of reports

Box 731: folder 7
Reports from local associations, by state


Box 731: folder 8-11

Box 731: folder 12-15
Interracial: Negro World War II Workers, USO, 1941-45

Box 731: folder 16
Local USO Clubs, 1951-62, n.d.

Box 731: folder 17

General pamphlets, 1951-53, n.d.

Box 732: folder 1
Democracy series pamphlets, 1943-45, n.d.

Box 732: folder 2

Box 732: folder 3
Health and Recreation

Box 732: folder 4

Box 732: folder 5
Program materials

Box 732: folder 6-8
Public Relations

Box 732: folder 9
Religion, 1943-53, n.d.

Box 732: folder 10
Teen Age, 1942-43, n.d.

Box 733: folder 1

Box 733: folder 2
Miscellaneous newsletters

Box 733: folder 3
Information Sheet, 1941-47

Box 733: folder 4-10
Program Letters, n.d.

Box 733: folder 11
The Round-up

Bound copies

Sep 1951-Mar 1955

Box 733: folder 12-13
Jan 1956-1959

Box 734: folder 1-2
Unbound copies, 1952-61

Box 734: folder 3-12

Compilation of Staff Reports on Rough Notes on Program Learnings in Constituency Groupings in the YWCA During the War Period, 1946

Box 734: folder 13
"Digest of Information on Wartime Employment of Women" by Nora Piore, Mar 1943

Box 734: folder 14
Executive Report-USO Division, 1941-47

Vol. XVI: Exhibit/Appendix J

Religious Material, YWCA and War Production Work, Housing

Box 734: folder 15
War Production Workers Program report by Florence Anderson

Box 735: folder 1
Play Contest, 1943-44

Box 735: folder 2

Exhibit/Appendix K: Service to Negroes

Box 735: folder 3-4
Exhibit/Appendix L: Training

Box 735: folder 5-8
Exhibit/Appendix M: Budgets

Box 735: folder 9
"A Nation at Work in Wartime: a report of the wartime program of the USO Division of National Board YWCA in war production areas," n.d.

Box 735: folder 10-11
Services to Campuses by the U.S.O. Division of the National Board of the YWCA, 1941-46

Box 735: folder 12-15
"Seven Case Studies of USO-YMCA-YWCA Joint Operations" by Margaret Williamson and Roy Sorenson, Jan 1943

Box 735: folder 16
United Community Defense Services (UCDS)

General, 1952-53, n.d.

Box 735: folder 17-19

Search Terms
The following terms represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Use these headings to search for additional materials on this web site, in the Five College Library Catalog, or in other library catalogs and databases.

  • Cotton, Bessie Boies, 1880-1959
  • United Service Organizations (U.S.)
  • United States--Armed Forces--Women--History--Sources
  • Women and war--United States--History
  • World War, 1914-1918--War work--France--Sources
  • World War, 1914-1918--War work--Young Women's Christian Association
  • World War, 1939-1945--Japanese Americans
  • World War, 1939-1945--War work
  • World War, 1939-1945--Women--United States

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