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YWCA of the U.S.A. Records. Record Group 06. Program: Series IV. Constituent Groups, 1870-2002
Collection number: 324_rg6_s4

This series includes records of the constituent groups of the YWCA and is arranged in five subseries: Employed Women; Immigration and Foreign Communities; Interracial/Racial Justice; Teenage and Younger Girls; and Young Adults. This series forms part of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records. Record Group 6. Program.

Terms of Access and Use:

Restrictions on access:

The records are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection without any additional restrictions.

Access to audiovisual materials may first require production of research copies.

Restrictions on use:

The YWCA of the USA retains copyright ownership of the records, but has authorized the Sophia Smith Collection to grant permission to publish reproductions or quotations from the records on its behalf.

Copyright to materials authored by persons other than YWCA staff may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights for permission to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Sophia Smith Collection
Smith College
Northampton, MA

Scope and contents of the collection

Forms part of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records--Record Group 6. Program.

NOTE: For the most part, the Microfilmed Records and the Original Format Records do not duplicate each other and both should be consulted. This description covers materials in both formats. See the Contents List for a folder-level inventory of the Original Format Records. See the Microfilmed Records Reel Lists for a detailed inventory of the microfilm.

This Series is divided into five Subseries:



The Young Women's Christian Association movement was founded to address concerns about the welfare of young, single working women who had moved to urban areas for jobs. Individual Associations in Cities and Towns offered them a range of services (such as housing, job placement, and cafeterias); vocational, recreational, and enrichment opportunities (such as classes, concerts, libraries, and gymnasium facilities); and prayer groups and other religious activities to serve their mental, moral, physical, and spiritual welfare. The idea was to introduce working women to a life beyond drudgery and to offer the potential for self-expression and job training. [See RECORD GROUP 2. PREDECESSOR ORGANIZATIONS]

YWCA "colored" war work staff at Camp Upton, Yapank, New York, 1918

YWCA "colored" war work staff at Camp Upton, Yapank, New York, 1918

In the early years, Women's Christian Associations and YWCAs used the word "Industrial" to refer to any kind of non-professional employment-women earning a living by their own "industry." YWCA Industrial Club members worked in factories, mills, laundries, hotels, department stores, telephone offices, domestic service (known as "household employment" in the YWCA.), etc.

Though the YWCA's original efforts on behalf of employed women did not exclude any type of work, the limited options open to women in the mid-nineteenth century meant that the majority of working women served by the YW were not employed in offices or the professions. This had changed by the end of the century as more and more women found work in offices and retail stores, where the work was clean and "light," the hours were generally shorter, and some opportunities for advancement existed. Many young office workers belonged to the Industrial Club at their Community YWCA, but often felt that issues specific to their work lives were not being addressed there.

Much of the initial "Industrial-Extension" work by the predecessor organizations took place inside factory buildings under the auspices of the employer. The Association was essentially "used by the employer as his agent for welfare work." As they became better acquainted with factory conditions and workers' struggles, YWCA secretaries felt this arrangement compromised their ability to work effectively with and on behalf of the employees. Though the Association needed the financial support provided by employers, it decided it could only accept their money if it was applied to the entire Association and did not specifically finance work with the Industrial women. Clubs that were originally organized "within factory walls" moved off site, but often retained the name of the factory and roster of members drawn from its work rolls. In some cases, Clubs evolved into Industrial Branches affiliated with a central City Association.

When the predecessor organizations merged to form the YWCA of the U.S.A., the National Association augmented the direct work being done under the auspices of Community Associations in what would become its classic fashion: making ongoing studies of the existing conditions to determine workers' needs, and developing methods and techniques to help meet those needs.

Beyond the enrichment and general educational opportunities offered to all YWCA members, the national program for employed women came to include a strong public advocacy component on behalf of workers [see SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY]; aid in the formation of self-governing Councils of working women; leadership training and administrative support for the Councils; and development of a multitude of ways "interpret" employed women's issues to the general membership.

In 1908 the National Association decided to experiment with serving professional workers, through the establishment of a Cooperating Committee with the Central Club for Nurses in New York City. Nineteenth century advances in the medical profession dramatically altered the nurse's job from that of a domestic helper primarily employed in the home, to professionally trained employees in a rapidly increasing array of new hospitals. In typical YWCA manner, National Staff studied existing conditions, identified needs, and recommended ways the Association might meet those needs. Once the work was established, the Cooperating Committee was absorbed into the YWCA of the City of New York, and the National Association made use of its experience to help formulate program for other professional workers.

In her 1911-12 biennial report to the Method Department, Industrial Secretary Florence Simms noted an overall "change of policy of the Association from the adaptation of the girl to the organization to the adaptation of the organization to the girl . . .," the "natural outgrowth" of which was the "further development of the principle of self-government in the club work." For the program to be truly useful, it had to be initiated and run by the club members and not by YWCA staff.

From 1913 the National Association encouraged "federation" of these small self-governing clubs into larger Councils based in cities or regions. In structure, the Councils mirrored the National Association. Local Clubs banded together into city, state, or regional groups. These self-governing groups gave members a chance to experience democracy, learn leadership and group work techniques, and understand the interdependence of all working women.

Club Councils held at summer camps in 1913 brought representatives from Industrial Clubs to regional conferences at Altamont in New York, Nepawhin in Pennsylvania, and Lake Geneva in Wisconsin. Here, along with the usual YWCA camp activities, delegates discussed ways to widen the influence of Industrial Clubs, suggested plans for further federation of clubs, and made plans for educational work.

In the first few years, Club Councils were primarily concerned with "executive technique," such as how to organize groups and activities and different ways to raise money. By 1917 the Council experience had broadened the industrial member's horizon from "just her own factory" to include the industrial needs of women throughout the country. Attendees were seeing themselves "industrially," making recommendations about how Industrial Clubs might work on behalf of minimum wage laws, advocate for health insurance, and promote efforts aimed at improving working conditions.

The Councils asked the National Association to develop new evening classes "different in many respects from the older type of ukulele and millinery" (The YWCA and Industry, 1928). It included topics such as: furnishing the home and what makes a house a home, as well as economics and labor problems, history, English, and public speaking, legislative questions, and how a city is governed.

Through their Studies and interactions with Club members, Industrial Secretaries on the National staff and in Community Associations had plenty of experience of the struggles of industrial workers, but the YWCA's intense involvement in World War I brought much more direct consciousness of these problems to the Association as a whole. [see SERIES VII. WAR WORK AND DEFENSE SERVICES].

World War I brought a dramatic increase in the number of women "being thrust into business" and prompted the National Association to begin specialized work with business and professional women. Early in 1918 the Association hired its first secretary for work with business and professional women. In May of that year the YWCA sponsored a national conference of business and professional women, who were not necessarily YWCA members, to consult on what kind of work might best serve this constituency. The Business and Professional women responded with appreciation for the work the YW was doing, but had concerns about whether the membership requirement (in order to be a YW member one had to be a member of an Evangelical Protestant church) was appropriate for a national business organization. During the conference, the Business and Professional women established a National Business Women's Committee which had its first meeting immediately following adjournment.

The Committee held its first Convention in St. Louis the following year and decided to form an independent organization, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs. Acknowledging the special needs of younger women, this group encouraged the YWCA to continue its efforts on behalf of their youngest sisters.

In October of 1919 the YWCA called its first National Conference of Industrial Club members "with the hope of phrasing a message" for the first International Congress of Working Women that would "clarify the relationship of Christianity to the present situation of women in industry." At the end of the conference, the delegates submitted a set of resolutions for eventual submission to the YWCA National Convention. The resolutions included a list of standards "which our industrial membership believes might form the basis of favorable working and living conditions for all industrial working women," accompanied by a recommendation that the National Association should promote education on industrial questions among all Association members and that "women should use their newly acquired power of the franchise to secure the writing of these standards into laws."

The resolutions reached the Convention in 1920 in the form of a recommendation that the YWCA adopt as its social program the "Social Ideals of the Churches" which had been articulated by the Federal Council of Churches in 1912. For the first time Industrial Club members took an active part in Convention proceedings, and their speeches from the floor "were quite largely responsible for the passage of that platform."

In "An Historical Outline of the Work of the Industrial Department," Grace Coyle described the import of the moment as the point at which the "social thought of the Association had crystallized sufficiently so that it was ready to take a stand nationally . . . . [I]t represented the fact that an organization assumed responsibility for changing those [working] conditions until they came nearer to the Christian conception of society as a human brotherhood."

The National Association was so impressed by the activities of Industrial membership during World War I and its Council work after the war, that it voted to authorize formation of a National Industrial Assembly at the 1922 Convention. Assemblies allowed various constituent groups to gather "for acquaintance with one another and for consideration of their part in the life of women through their membership in the YWCA." They functioned like mini-Conventions where the membership debated and approved resolutions and program for Clubs to carry out in the following years. They were autonomous groups authorized to make decisions on behalf of their constituency and subject to the total membership only in matters of consequence to the entire Association. Assemblies selected a National Council (equivalent to the National Board of the YWCA) to draft program and resolutions, plan Assemblies, and oversee progress on projects and program in the interim between Conventions.

The National Association hired its first National Secretary for work with Business and Professional women in 1922 and moved to establish a National Business Assembly at Convention in 1924.

Conferences played a major role in the programs for employed women providing a broadening experience that re-energized members. They were planned by Area Councils and often included National Staff as facilitators. Summer conferences or councils, designed on the model of the traditional student summer conferences, lasted for ten days and were held in inexpensive vacation spots, such as at summer camps or on college campuses. For many they offered "a chance for a real vacation," combined with an opportunity to understand the shared concerns and interdependence of working women. The general educational program included traditional YWCA topics, such as religion, government and citizenship, interracial relations, world fellowship, and Association principles and practices. The "technical hours" were the "setting-up conference" for planning the work for the year. Attendees divided into commissions that worked on subjects such as education; social service; club organization; and issues specific to working women, such as consumer interests, occupational health and safety, trade unions, etc. Personal development activities included writing groups, music, dramatics, and various opportunities for outdoor recreation.

Weekend conferences were an especially strong tradition among Business and Professional Clubs. They were initiated and executed by Business and Professional staff and club members of several Community Associations in geographic proximity. They provided opportunities for conference chairs to gather the "thinking and concerns" of the members and convey that to Area Councils and summer conferences. National staff attended whenever possible.

Both Councils also sponsored yearly events to celebrate their unity and common concerns with a banquet and program held on the same night. For Business and Professional Clubs the event was known as the Nation-wide Observance (later, World-wide Observance). The Industrial Club version was known as National Industrial Progress Day.

To bring working women's concerns to the full Association and the general public, Eleanor Coit, National Industrial Secretary, encouraged Industrial Secretaries in Community Associations to use their regular contact with industrial members to gather "a fund of human experience that needs to get into the consciousness of the public." Feeling acutely the inadequacy of the national research staff, Coit encouraged local secretaries to use the "story method" to collect information. The main emphases of the program for 1926-27 were married women in industry and the racial factor in industry.

National staff spent considerable time on labor education in the 1930s, whether participating in YWCA conferences or in the Bryn Mawr and Wisconsin Summer Schools for women in industry.

"More and more thinking men and women are realizing how largely shortages in people's lives are due to shortages in their education. A large percentage of the membership of the YWCA consists of women whose education has been cut short at an early age, and who are for this reason seriously handicapped not only in the business of earning a living, but also in the business of living. To enable these women to bridge over the gaps in their education is, therefore, becoming an increasingly important concern of this organization, especially now that women are assuming heavier responsibilities as citizens than they have ever shouldered before" (When Labor Goes to School, 1920).

By the end of World War I, the National Association had developed relatively elaborate programs for Industrial, Business and Professional, and eventually Agricultural workers with associated specialist staff. The YWCA was always somewhat ambivalent about whether the various groups of employed women were different enough to warrant separate groups. While some issues were unique to a particular category of job, many issues were shared and much of the general YWCA program was essentially identical for all groups of working women. With the loss of wartime and continuation funding and the onset of the Great Depression, it became difficult for the National Association to continue to support the programs and for the Club members to afford conferences and travel to council meetings.

During the Depression, the two Councils were both heavily involved in work on the problems related to the widespread unemployment. A 1928 Convention Action called for Community Associations to devise methods for aiding the unemployed in their area, and charged the National Association to cooperate with other organizations to "promote adequate protection and remedial measures in the stabilization of employment." Results of local studies and articles by outside experts and YWCA staff were collected together in a "Symposium" for use at the 1930 Convention. Supplementary budget appropriations in 1931 supported research and development of a group of publications on how to deal with the challenges, including such topics as making constructive use of enforced leisure time, the social consequences of widespread unemployment, and services for transient and homeless women.

The National Association's mid-1930s plan to concentrate on the Association "as a whole" rather than its constituent parts meant that the Councils got less support and participation from National staff. Strong interest, particularly in the Industrial Council, kept employed women's Councils going through World War II despite dwindling membership.

By the late 1940s the Councils began to look for ways to revitalize the programs for working women. They asked for increased national support, particularly in the form of studies. The Business, Professional, and Industrial Experimentation Committee carried out experimental studies in eleven selected communities to find new ways of strengthening program with young employed women.

The National Board appointed an Ad Hoc Committee to Study the Future of Business, Professional and Industrial Assembly and Council Structure and its related conferences and program in 1948. Given the National Association's general movement away from programs aimed at constituent groups, part of the Committee's charge was to determine whether the National Association should continue to support the Councils at all. Its January 1949 report proposed combining the two Councils into a single National Employed Women's Council with equal numbers of members drawn from the Industrial and Business and Professional constituency. While B and P accepted the idea, the Industrial Council was less enthusiastic. In the end, they devised a compromise plan in which the two Assemblies would meet together as the National Employed Women's Coordinating Assembly which would have complete responsibility for matters of mutual concern, such as dues, program, trends, and cooperation, and each would continue to meet separately on matters specific to the different types of work.

As of 1950 National oversight of the work with employed women became the responsibility of the Young Adult Committee/Council which had general responsibility for all members not in high school or college, whether in the workforce or not. [See Subseries E. Young Adults.]

Some study and experimentation continued until 1952, but the self-governing groups for employed women did not ultimately survive. Efforts on behalf of working women on the national level continued primarily as part of the Public Advocacy program. The National Association also sponsored or co-sponsored periodic conferences or consultations on women and work.

As a result of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the National Association got involved in two new projects for employed women in the late 1960s: the Business Office Culture Project, and the Job-Corps YWCA Extension Residence Program. Both of these projects were funded by the U.S. Department of Labor, administered by the National Association, and carried out in selected Community Associations. The Business Office Culture Project (circa 1968-69) provided technical training and an introduction to the "culture" of the business world. The National Association's involvement with Job-Corps (1967-75) was to run small (15-30 person) residences for young women who had completed the Job-Corps vocational training program. Here the trainees could gain experience living and working independently with support and supervision from YWCA counselors and program specialists. The Government did not renew the national contract as of the spring of 1975, but it encouraged Job Corps Regional Offices to enter into contracts with local YWCAs.


As the National Association grew, it noted an increasing number of Industrial Club members in domestic service, or "Household Employment," particularly in its "Colored" Branches. The National Association made regular studies and surveys of conditions beginning in 1915 with the appointment of the Commission on Household Employment. In 1928 it participated in the formation of the National Committee on Employer-Employee Relationships in the Home, which later evolved into the National Council on Household Employment. The YWCA was one of the Council's cooperating agencies with a member on its Board. The National Association also advocated for a voluntary employer-employee agreement covering issues such as maximum hours, minimum wage, living arrangements, regular payment of wages, etc.

The Industrial Assembly took up the subject at its 1925 Conferences and adopted it as one of its Projects in 1931. The National Association and the Industrial Assembly collected data on working conditions and training programs. With the staff reductions and reorganization of the early 1930s, the work, which had been associated with the Industrial Department, became "loosely" attached to Public Affairs through its Subcommittee on Household Employment. This Subcommittee gathered data from the various groups studying the "household employment problem" in the YWCA. Because YWCA constituency included both employers and employees, the Subcommittee felt the YWCA constituted "the best working laboratory in the world" for studying the situation. Their recommended program for improving employer-employee relations included study and discussion groups, promotion of a voluntary agreement on employment terms, legislation, and cooperative relationships with organized groups of employers and employees.

By the late 1930s this Subcommittee was mainly advocating for legislation, such as the inclusion of domestic employees in the Social Security program. Beginning in the mid-1940s discussions about the general decline in participation of working women in the YWCA and ever decreasing numbers of domestic workers included the decision that the Association could not continue to devote part of its limited resources to household employment issues.

Administrative History
1907-08Industrial Secretary, Association Extension Committee in the Home Department and regional Field Secretaries in Field Dept
1909-18Home Department name changed to Department of Method
1918-22large staff expansion associated with World War I, some staff part of War Work Council
1919-23Department of Method name changed to Research and Method
1923-32Industrial Department and Department of Work with Business and Professional Women under Field Division (first staff for B and P)
1932National Services Division
1933-39Membership Program under Leadership Division
1940-45Group Interests under Community Division
1945-46"Constituency" under Community Division, staff member added for Agricultural
1947-49Headquarters-based Staff under Community Division
1950Young Adult under Community Division

Scope and Content

Employed Women Program records include general and history files; committee and department minutes and reports; extensive conference files; National and Regional Council records; organizations files; programs and projects files; publications; reference materials; studies; and training materials.

Most of the records in this series are those gathered in the National Association's Central File, and date primarily from the post World War I staff reorganization and the establishment of the National Assemblies (1922-24) up to 1950. Earlier materials (primarily Industrial) can be found in Method Department records in Series I of this Record Group. Few records date from after 1950 when the working women's Councils were combined with other groups into the Young Adult Council. There are a few files on the Business Office Culture Project and Job-Corps YWCA Extension Residence Programs of the 1960s and 70s, and scattered items from the 1980s. [see also Subseries E. Young Adults]

Because the working women's clubs and councils were self-governing groups, the records associated with their activities, including the conferences they planned, were often written by the working women themselves. While some of the documents are reports by National Staff on attendance at conferences or council meetings, much is in the voice of the working women members.

The extensive Conference files can include: planning materials such as local arrangements files, mailings, and pre-conference study materials; items for use during the conference such as programs, schedules, handouts, training materials, daily meditations, skit scripts, song sheets, and bulletins with drawings and other art work, poetry and fiction by conference participants; and summary materials such as reports, participants lists, financial records, training materials, and evaluations.

The Household Employment files were compiled for the YWCA's Central Subject File and include various records of various committees and commissions working on related issues, as well as local associations files with correspondence, reports, surveys, and reference materials on household employment issues and training programs (not necessarily YW programs) in various regions of the country.

Microfilmed Records, 1906-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

Most of the records on the microfilm were retained in original format. The one category of records that is probably more complete in original format is publications. Records of program related to Employed Women can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • B. and P. [Business and Professional] Committee
    • B.P. and I. [Business, Professional, and Industrial]
    • Co-operating Committee, Central Club for Nurses
    • Industrial Committee
    • Young Adult Council
  • Subject Files
    • Business and Industrial Women
    • Business and Professional Women
    • Business, Professional and Industrial Women
    • Economics
    • Household Employment [Domestic Service]
    • Industrial
    • Job Corps-J.C.Y.W.
    • Labor

Original Format Records, 1870-84, n.d., 24.5 linear feet

[see Original Format Records folder list]

Most of the records that were microfilmed were retained in original format. The one category of records that is probably more complete in original format is publications.

Materials about the YWCA's work with employed women is in sections as follows:

General contains records of combined B and P, Industrial, and Agricultural activities, committees, conferences, and councils. There are also files on early (1906-19) general working women's groups, general employment-related publications and studies, and general work-related projects from the 1960s and 70s (including the Job-Corps YWCA Extension Residence Program). Records of YWCA research projects, publications, and activities related to Unemployment during the 1920s and 1930s are filed at the end of this section.

Business and Professional Women contains general historical materials, committee minutes, extensive summer and weekend conference records, National and Area Council and National Assembly records, files on work with related organizations, a few files on the Business Office Culture Project of the late-1960s, publications, and studies.

Household Employment contains general historical materials, committee and commission records, Local Associations files; records of Industrial Assembly and Conference Household Employment Project, files on cooperating organizations, publications, and reference materials.

Industrial Work contains general historical materials, including some files on local Industrial Clubs and Committees, Committee records, extensive Summer and Weekend/Mid-winter Conference files, National and Area Council records; files on National Assemblies, program and project files, publications, reports, studies, and training materials.

Related Materials

In other Subseries in this Series:

Subseries D. Teen Age and Younger Girls Program contains studies of younger employed girls and program materials created for them, plus additional Younger Girls in Business and Industry (YGBI) Clubs. There are also records of some employment training programs and projects developed specifically for teenagers, such as the Young Women's Employment Project (1980s), and the Youth Workers Team Learning Project (1970s).

Subseries E. Young Adults has records of the consolidated programs for YW-Wives, younger employed women, Students, and Teen-Agers dating from 1950 to 1979.

In other Series in this Record Group:

SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY contains records of the YWCA's involvement with labor legislation and other workers' issues.

SERIES VII. WAR WORK AND DEFENSE SERVICES contains records of the YWCA's work on behalf of women mobilized into Industry in both World Wars.

In other Record Groups:

Records of the two predecessor organizations document their work on behalf of employed women are in RECORD GROUP 2. PREDECESSOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NATIONAL BOARD.

RECORD GROUP 4. NATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND CONFERENCES has small files on Industrial and B and P Assemblies convened at Conventions and documentation of resolutions and actions related to employed women's issues.

RECORD GROUP 7. STUDENT WORK: The Student Department formed clubs and developed summer Student-Industrial Programs in the 1920s and 30s to bring together college students and working women for joint study and Christian fellowship.

RECORD GROUP 8. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS: The earliest discussions of the new National Association's work with employed women are recorded in the records of the Association Extension Committee. Other materials can be found in the records of the Rural Communities Department, Mill Villages work and rural-industrial studies, and Employment and Room Registry reports on local conditions. Microfilmed Local Associations files contain records of interactions between National Staff and Industrial Branches and some studies of local industrial conditions. They also contain records of the national organization's interaction with Mill Village YWCAs.

RECORD GROUP 8. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS The Local Associations files on the microfilm have records of National Association contacts with "Industrial" branches in some cities.

There are many photographs of women working and of Employed women's conferences in RECORD GROUP 9. PHOTOGRAPHS, ARTIFACTS, AND RECORD GROUP 10. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS.

In Personal Papers:

The Lillian Sharpley Papers contain notes and drafts for a history of the YWCA's work with Business and Professional women.

The Grace Dodge Papers contain a scrapbook of writings with many articles about household employment.


One of the tasks of the staff of the newly established YWCA of the U.S.A. was to decide what kinds of work the National Association should do; which existing YWCA activities it should try to coordinate at the national level and what new types of work it should attempt. Examination of these issues was the charge of the Extension and Sociological Investigation Committee (later the Association Extension Committee) which had its first meeting late in 1907. It seems to have been a given that City, Student, and Foreign work would continue under the new National Association, but all other types of "extension" of the work were first studied by the Committee.

At its first meeting in 1907 the Extension and Sociological Investigation Committee of the new National Association considered, among other things, whether or how the National Association should serve young immigrant women. At issue were "the difficulty of other religious organizations working there, owing to the almost complete control of the field by the Catholic church" and "the seeming necessity for settlement work, since there are so many men, women and children in need, young women being in the minority." Given these complications, the Committee resolved to study the matter further. Over its first year they received suggestions from various organizations about specific ways the YWCA might serve young immigrant women, such as meeting them upon arrival, assisting them to their destination, and aiding them in finding employment. Another area of concern was "the Americanization and Christianization of immigrant girls working in American homes."

YWCA of the USA president Grace Dodge appointed a Special Committee of Research and Investigation in April 1910 in response to "recent revelations of the adverse conditions surrounding Immigrant women and girls as they come to America" which made it "imperative that the [YWCA] . . . should at least study the question to see if there is a need which it can meet, which is not being met by any other organization." After a summer of study in New York City, the National Association inaugurated a demonstration program for young immigrant women in the fall of 1910 under the auspices of the Association Extension Committee.

The National Association engaged Edith Terry [later Bremer] to establish what eventually became the International Institute of the City of New York. The Institute initially offered English classes and staff wrote and published materials for adults learning the language. Members of the Special Committee visited Community Associations outside of New York to consult and coordinate their fledgling immigrant programs.

The National Association's work with foreign-born women aimed to "serve the Association and the entire American community by bringing into association women of many nationalities, widening the acquaintance and increasing the understanding of all, and developing internationalism by training in internationality friendships." It was also designed to serve "the immigrant woman by helping her to a 'more abundant life' . . . helping her and her American-born daughter to understand and appreciate each other," and to make the U.S. known and loved by its new citizens. The specifics of the program were tailored to the interests and needs of the constituents, but the basic idea was essentially the same as elsewhere in the Association.

In addition to English classes, the Association program for young immigrant women came to include "wholesome recreation," technical classes to raise their "economic value," practical and scientific instruction for home life or domestic service (for those wishing it), understanding of American standards and ideals, and "character" instruction.

National Staff facilitated the establishment of special branches of Community YWCAs to serve non-English speaking young women wherever the size of a city's immigrant population warranted it. The National Association decided to call these branches International Institutes, once it learned that the word "Association" had negative (commercial or radical) connotations for Europeans. By contrast "Institutes" were associated with "protection obtained and something learned."

National work on behalf of immigrant women also included work fostering understanding and appreciation of their cultures among the total membership and the general public. In addition to texts for teaching English as a second language, National staff for "Immigration and Foreign Communities" work produced "technical" materials about cultures, languages, history, and customs, and corresponded with Community Associations and various other organizations about "relating to foreign people." An adaptation of the Eight Week Club Plan, called International Friendship Clubs, matched college YWCA women home for the summer with high school girls in small towns. Program staff developing ideas for recreational activities incorporated research by the Foreign Communities staff into song books, programs for folk festivals, and suggestions for programs, pageants, and plays. The National Association encouraged celebration of the richness these cultures brought to the U.S. and to the Association. YWCA serials consistently included articles, and Conferences regularly incorporated some kind of program, designed to foster appreciation in the general membership of immigrant issues and cultures.

World War I precipitated a significant increase in both the size and complexity of the national program of "Work with Foreign-Born Women." In her first report for the fall of 1917, Edith Terry Bremer noted that "The American idea about immigrants has completely changed." The War suddenly made "every foreign home a place of dread and fear and suspicion." "It is queer and inconsistent," she wrote in her October 17, 1917 report, "that the same situation that has melted the hearts of Americans toward Europeans in Europe has hardened and made exacting and suspicious those same hearts toward Europeans in America!!!"

In its capacity as a member of the National War Work Council, the YWCA assumed responsibility for the care and protection of women as they were affected by the war. Noting that the effects of the war were even more severe for foreign-born women, the YWCA ramped up its efforts on their behalf. It essentially nationalized what had been a northeastern U.S. operation. With War Work Council funding, multi-lingual secretaries were hired for Port Work, meeting immigrant women at points of intake on the east and west coasts; staff of a new International Information and Service Bureau translated all kinds of technical materials and wrote speeches and information sheets in a variety of languages "upon all matters for which they are needing help;" other secretaries did Emergency Field work to help speed the opening of new International Institutes for young women of all nationalities; a Bureau was established to help in locating refugee relatives in Europe; and the YWCA provided "home service" for the families of enlisted men. To facilitate all this new work and reconstruction work in Europe, the YWCA established training programs for foreign community workers and reconstruction volunteers. Most of the "Foreign Communities" staff worked under the auspices of the War Work Council from the fall of 1917 through the post-war Continuation period. With the nationalization of the efforts, the staff began to serve immigrant populations different from the primarily European groups prevalent in the northeast and Midwest, particularly Mexican immigrants in the southwest and Asian immigrants on the west coast.

Once the Continuation funds were exhausted, the National Association was forced to make drastic cuts to its Foreign Communities staff. Many of the War Work staff found work in the new International Institutes supported by Community YWCAs. With the advent of the Great Depression it became difficult to maintain even a reduced level of services and the Association sought ways to simplify its program. Noting that immigration work was most effective when it included all family members, not just its young women, the National Association and other agencies working on behalf of the foreign born facilitated the creation of a new national organization to oversee the work. The National Institute of Immigrant Welfare, established in 1934, assumed much of the program the YWCA had developed, including administration of the International Institutes. The NIIW named the YWCA's longtime director of Immigration and Foreign Communities Work, Edith Terry Bremer, its first executive director.

From that time National YWCA work related to immigration and immigrants was more-or-less confined to public advocacy. [See SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY] During World War II, the National Association once again established similar (though more small-scale) services for aiding war refugees. It also ran programs for Japanese-Americans sent to Relocation Centers. [See SERIES VII. WAR WORK AND DEFENSE SERVICES.]

With the exception of African-Americans, the role of racial and ethnic groups in the National Association is largely undocumented between 1934 and the 1970 "One Imperative" Convention and its associated Institutes, Workshops, and Consultations.

That Convention prompted the National Association to broaden its idea about racism to include other racial and ethnic groups in a new "Racial Justice" program. [see Subseries C. Interracial/Racial Justice below]

Administrative History
Oct 1910Special Worker, Immigration Work for the Association Extension Committee
1911Department of Method
1912Immigration Work, City Department in the Department of Method
1916"Immigration and Foreign Community Work" in the Department of Method
Sep 1918Special Workers at Headquarters, Foreign-born Women, War Work Staff and Department of Method
Dec 1918Work for Foreign-Born Women, War Work Staff
Jan 1920Work for Foreign-Born Women, Continuation Committee staff
1921Post-Continuation Committee staff
1923Dept for Work with Foreign-Born Women under Field Division
1925Dept for Immigration and Foreign Communities under Field Division
1932International Institutes and Foreign Communities, Studies and Program Materials under Laboratory Division; and International Institutes and Foreign Communities under National Services Division
1933Bureau of Immigration and the Foreign-Born
fall 1935Nationality Community Interests in Program and Research under Laboratory Division
1936International Interests (or Nationality Community Interests) in Program, and Research under Laboratory Division
1939Refugees in Program and Research under Laboratory Division
1940-43Nationality Community Interests in Community Division
1944Committee on Refugees secretary in General Administration and Japanese Evacuees (special project)

Scope and Content

Records of the National Immigration and Foreign Communities work includes general historical materials, correspondence, minutes, conference files, records of cooperation with other organizations working on immigration and refugee issues, publications, reference files, reports, studies, and training materials.

The Original Format Records include significant un-microfilmed materials from Elizabeth Hendee, head of the Vocational Guidance Bureau.

Microfilmed Records, 1910-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The Minutes and Reports and much of the Immigration section of the Subject File were not discarded after microfilming, so many of the microfilmed materials can also be consulted in original format.

Local Associations files include records of the national office's interactions with various International Institutes. They can be found on the film following the general files for a local association. (For example, under Missouri, general files about the Saint Louis Association appear on reel 187 at microdex 2, these are followed by "Saint Louis--Carondelet Branch," which is followed by "Saint Louis-International Institute.") These materials were discarded after microfilming, so are only available on the microfilm.

Immigration and Foreign Communities materials can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • Immigration and Foreign Communities Committee
    • Research and Investigation Committee
  • Subject Files
    • Immigration
    • Immigration-International Institutes
  • Local Association files
    • International Institute - filed alphabetically by state and then by City of name of the Association

Original Format Records, 1911-93, 4.5 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

Beyond the microfilmed Subject File and Minutes and Reports, the original format records contain additional publications, articles and theses about the work, and some of Elizabeth Hendee's Vocational Guidance Bureau office working files received by the National Board Archives long after the records were microfilmed. These files were incorporated into the original format records described below.

The Original format records are arranged as follows:

General and History contains general historical materials including brochures and pamphlets.

Department, Committees, and Commissions contains minutes of the major committees, and some staff meetings; records of the Commission on the Study of the Second Generation Girl, a group studying the challenges faced by the children of new immigrants, 1925-35; department correspondence and mailings called "Program Letters"; records related to process by which the National Association facilitated founding of the National Institute of Immigrant Welfare; general information on International Institutes and their policies; a small group of autobiographies by International Institute members; and some records of the Vocational Guidance Bureau.

Conferences contains records of national conferences of International Institutes and foreign communities YWCA staff, 1917-45.

Organizations has records of interactions with the National Institute of Immigrant Welfare including some committee files and publications dating from its founding in 1934 to 1949. There are also files of correspondence with civil liberties, refugee welfare, and citizenship education organizations from the World War II era.

Publications includes technical bulletins and handbooks for understanding and working with foreign-born members; tools for teaching English as a second language; books about folk festivals, ethnic costumes, and some International Institute cookbooks. There are also several serial publications including Foreign Born, published by the National Association, 1919-22.

Reference files includes bibliographies and subject files compiled by the staff on such topics as race and nationality, displaced persons, "mother tongue," and "background materials" on countries.

Reports includes Department, Committee and Commission, International Institute, secretary and visitation reports, 1910-42.

Studies are on various topics from the 1920s and 30s.

Training materials are primarily related to training staff to work with foreign community members (1918-35) and include some general information about the summer training program at Fletcher Farm in Ludlow, Vermont.

Related Materials

In other Subseries in this Series:

Subseries D. Teenage and Younger Girls: information about other cultures and the lives of foreign-born girls were a regular feature in materials for Teen conferences and in the Teen serial The Bookshelf.

In other Series in this Record Group:

SERIES I. DEPARTMENT, STAFF AND COMMITTEES: Immigration and Foreign Communities staff reported to the Association Extension Committee and then the Research and Method Department up to World War I. Discussions of the work and additional secretary's reports can be found there.

SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY: Beginning with World War I, the National Program for Public Advocacy included a variety of efforts on behalf of refugees, immigration legislation, and other related topics. After World War II, Public Advocacy is pretty much the only way the National Association is involved in immigrant issues.

SERIES V. PROGRAM SUBJECTS: Much of the educational work associated with education about, and appreciation of, other cultures was produced by staff generating materials for use in recreational programs, including the Music Department, and Pageantry and Drama.

SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS: The Womans Press published a number of titles for the general public on folk customs, costumes, and festivals. The Association Monthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine regularly carried articles on immigrants and immigration issues.

SERIES VII. WAR WORK AND DEFENSE SERVICES: the increased Immigration and Foreign Communities staff during World War I was transferred from the National Association budget to the oversight of the War Work Council. Records of immigration work between the fall of 1917 and the spring of 1920 are filed in this series.

While not as extensive as the activities during World War I, World War II saw a similar increase of activities and staff.

In other Record Groups:


SERIES I. SERVICES TO COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS includes discussions of the work, and reports on visits to Community Associations are in the Minutes and Secretaries' reports in this record group, particularly in the City Department.

SERIES IV. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS FILES include information on local studies of the foreign-born situation and records of interactions between the National Staff and International Institutes in some cities. These are in the Local Associations files on the microfilm.

There are a few publications about International Institutes, particularly the YW of the City of New York, in the Original Format Records in the Community Associations Historical Files.

At other repositories:

Ludmila K. Foxlee Papers, Liberty Island Archives, Ellis Island

Records of various YWCA International Institutes, Social Welfare History Archives, and the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota


NOTE: Up until 1970, the YWCA of the USA considered its work related to American Indians and African-Americans as fundamentally different from its work with other "minority" or "ethnic" groups. From its founding in 1906 up until the "One Imperative" Convention of 1970, the Mexican population in the southwest, Asian population on the west coast, and European immigrants in the northeast and Midwest were considered part of the Immigration-related work. Information about records related to YWCA work among those populations can be found in Immigration and Foreign Communities in Subseries B of this Series. The 1970 Convention and its associated Institutes, Workshops, and Consultations resulted in more broadly conceived "Racial Justice" work which eventually came to include all oppressed groups. Records related to this period of YWCA are described below under Part 3.

Early work with American Indian and "Colored" YWCA members was more-or-less completely segregated within the National Association. This approach was gradually replaced, at least as concerned African-Americans, by "interracial" work. As indicated above, the concept of the work changed with the 1970 Convention and its associated One Imperative Program to a "Racial Justice" approach. The records in this Subseries are arranged in three sections reflecting these shifting concepts. Part 1 is records of American Indian work, 1892-1945; Part 2 is records related to "Colored" and "Interracial" work up to 1970; and Part 3 is records of "Racial Justice" work, 1970-2002.


Historical Note

American Indian women became involved in the YWCA movement through Student Associations affiliated with the predecessor organization, the American Committee. The first American Indian woman to join a YWCA group was probably Susan La Flesche, an Omaha who joined the Student Association at Philadelphia Woman's Medical College in the 1880s. The American Committee established Associations at several Indian schools in the 1890s, including Haworth Institute and Bacone College for Indians.

After its establishment in 1906, the YWCA of the U.S.A. continued the work through its Student Committee, hiring Edith Dabb, a white woman, as a Special Worker in Indian Schools in 1909. Two years later, the YWCA developed a plan to place religious work directors in the largest American Indian schools. Religious education, physical fitness, and health were early goals of work. As time went on, the program placed more emphasis on "self expression," "courage," opportunities for higher education, and leadership training.

In 1917 the YWCA hired its first professional American Indian worker, Lucy Hunter, a Winnebago, who worked for the Student Department in Oklahoma and Southwest. Several other Native Americans joined the staff, including Ella Deloria (Anpetu Wastewin), a Sioux who became the Health Education Secretary for Indian schools. The first summer camp for American Indian girls took place in Kansas in 1922; the next year, three more camps opened across the country.

From 1922-31, staff moved to the Department of Indian Work in the Field Division. In addition to coordinating programs for Native American women, they produced publications and other program materials about American Indians and their culture for use by other YWCA groups. In addition to the traditional educational work for Indian women, the Department coordinated services similar to those provided through the Department of Industrial Work, such as vocational training and housing for young women moving to cities and towns for work.

The 1931 National staff reorganization integrated the Department of Indian Work into the National Services Division. Work in the 1930s and 1940s continued to focus on providing education and leadership skills to Native American women. Concerns about education, health and economic opportunities for Native American women as well as the end of government wardship of Native American peoples became part of the public advocacy agenda and appeared in resolutions at National Conventions beginning in 1934.

The YWCA's general trend of eliminating specialist constituent group staff left only one Indian Work Secretary, Bertha Eckert, by 1940 when administration of the work was moved into the Community Division. When Eckert retired in 1943, the position was eliminated.

Lamenting the loss of yet another position, Community Division Executive Grace Stuff wrote in her Division report for 1940-45:

". . . we have so weakened our resources in this field that we have to recognize that we are not sustaining any useful advisory service to this part of the constituency. This is again the sample of the 'stretch out' system which we have employed over the last five years. It is lacking in realism and honesty to assume that basic staff can absorb work cut, and increase services to a variety of newly agreed upon special projects and at one and the same time sustain a volume of work which has been on the increase since 1940 from community Association needs. The National Board cannot claim work with an interracial constituency in the United States and not have within its membership young Indian women. Therefore it faces the dilemma of admitting that it ceases to be a truly interracial membership in this country or increasing services to the extent of actual increase in staff to carry defined responsibilities."

While American Indian women continued as members of the Association, beyond Public Advocacy, there don't appear to have been any national efforts on their behalf until the mid-1960s when the Student YMCA and YWCA collaborated on a summer project on the Rosebud Indian Reservation.

With adoption of the One Imperative at Convention in 1970 and the ensuing programs, American Indian members and their issues and concerns returned to the consciousness of the National Association, as part of its more broadly defined Racial Justice efforts. Associated activities were coordinated through the Center/Office for Racial Justice. [See Racial Justice below]

Administrative History
1909-1910Special Worker (Indian Schools) under Student Committee of Home Department (Edith Dabb)
1910-13Secretary, Indian Schools, under Student Committee of Method Department (Dabb)
1913-18Method Department (Dabb)
1918Research and Method Department (Dabb and Lucy Hunter, Special Worker)
1919Research and Method Department (Dabb and Susie Meek, Special Worker); Field Secretaries, Southwestern Field (Bertha Eckert)
1920Research and Method Department (Dabb); Field Work Department (Meek, Student, Indian Schools); Field Secretaries, Southwestern Field (Eckert)
1921Research and Method Department (Dabb); Field Work Department (Meek and Ella Deloria, Student, Indian Schools); Field Secretaries, Southwestern Field (Eckert), Pacific Coast Field (Dorothy Cate)
1923-32Indian Department under Field Division (Dabb, Cate, Deloria, Eckert, and Dorothy Stevenson)
1932National Services Division (Dabb, Eckert, Cate-1932 only)
1940-43Community Division, Administrative Services, Indian Work (Eckert)

Scope and Content-Part 1. American Indian Work, 1892-1945

The records of the American Indian work consist of general historical files; a small amount of correspondence and memoranda; miscellaneous items from YWCAs in Indian Schools; program materials; publications; reference materials; and reports. Most are dated between 1916 and 1943. Subjects reflected in the records related to YWCA work with American Indians include health, education, religion, and problems of government wardship. Educational materials created for use by the general Association membership, particularly the teenage program, deal with Indian culture and arts.

After the 1970 Convention the National Association consolidated its work with various ethnic groups into a Racial Justice agenda. Materials from that era can be found with in the Racial Justice section of this series.

Microfilmed Records, 1892-1947 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

  • Subject Files
    • Interracial, Indian Work

Original Format Records, 1892-1945

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The original format materials consist primarily of the records from the YWCA Central File that were microfilmed under "Interracial, Indian Work." It is a modest amount of material including general historical information; program materials and publications for and about American Indians; reports; and reference materials dating from 1892 to 1949. The few items not included in the Microfilmed Records are historical research by YWCA staff from the 1980s and some publications, particularly the hard-cover books.

Related Materials

Elsewhere in this Series

Subseries D. Teenage and Younger Girls Program contains publications, articles in the Bookshelf, and other program materials about American Indian girls and their culture.

In other Series in this Record Group

SERIES I. DEPARTMENT, STAFF, AND COMMITTEES includes related material as part of Program Planning Study, 1940-41.

SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY Materials relating to the work of the YWCA on behalf of, and with, American Indians regarding their social, economic, and political rights from the 1930s on.

SERIES V. PROGRAM SUBJECTS in Subseries C. Music and Subseries D. Pageantry and Drama are a number of scripts and publications related to American Indians and their culture.

SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS The main YWCA serial Association Monthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine has regular articles on American Indians in general and on their role in the YWCA.

In other Record Groups

RECORD GROUP 2. PREDECESSOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NATIONAL BOARD Information about early work at Indian Schools can be found in the Records of the American Committee.


RECORD GROUP 4. NATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND CONFERENCES discussion of Public Advocacy resolutions and Convention Actions

RECORD GROUP 7. STUDENT WORK Most of the earlier work with American Indians was in Indian Schools under the auspices of the Student Staff. See especially the Minutes and Secretary's reports.


Historical Note

NOTE: For a detailed study of race relations in the YWCA up to 1946 see: Christian Sisterhood, Race Relations, and the YWCA, 1906-46 by Nancy Marie Robertson, University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Race relations represented the toughest challenge to the YWCA's identity as a membership-directed association of women. The Association's struggles over the course of the twentieth century to achieve meaningful diversity point up the tremendous difficulties faced by any national organization trying to reach consensus in a country with such a large and varied populace. The National Association approached the work in characteristically deliberative fashion, slowly and carefully studying the issues, developing recommendations, tools, and techniques it hoped would persuade its membership and the public at large that it was the duty of citizens in a democracy and of Christians to work for fundamental justice for all people.

African-American women participated in a small way in the efforts of the YWCA of the U.S.A.'s two predecessor organizations. The International Board focused its efforts primarily in urban centers of the north at a time when the vast majority of the African-American population in the U.S. lived in rural areas in the south. Its roster included a small number of "Colored" YWCAs, the earliest being established in Philadelphia in 1870, but they were not generally financially stable, long-lived Associations. The American Committee included among its membership a few YWCAs in Black schools and colleges, the earliest was founded at Spelman College in 1884. In 1906 when the two predecessor organizations agreed to merge, there were four "Colored" Community Associations and fourteen Student Associations.

The new National Association had an intense desire to put the divisiveness of the past behind it and establish an effective, unified, country-wide organization. As was the case when considering work with other constituent groups, committees and staff took time to make a thorough study of the "field" and whether or how the YWCA might contribute. In the case of the "colored" work, the added complications inherent in addressing race issues--including the possibility of interracial activities, conferences, and Conventions--made the Association especially cautious about embarking on the effort.

In June 1907 members of the National Board met with "Southern" (a.k.a. white) women attending the Asheville Summer Conference to discuss "the Colored Question." A report of the meeting in the National Board minutes for October 2, 1907, makes clear that the National Association left it to the southern women to decide how the Association should proceed in regards to "the Colored Question." The women thanked the Board for this "courtesy" and recommended that all of the American Committee's existing "negro student associations" (which were segregated) should be received into the National Association and that "the matter of work in city negro associations be deferred for a year in the southern states." Further, they recommended that the National Board be asked to "confine the representation at the Southern Conference in future always to white delegates." The recommendations were "cordially accepted" by a National Board eager to achieve unity.

The Student Committee hired Addie Waites Hunton (the first African-American hired by the National Association) to spend three months in the fall and winter of 1907-08 visiting "colored student Associations formerly affiliated with the American Committee and others that have requested affiliation to strengthen them in their work and see whether they are prepared for affiliation."

After Hunton's study, the Student Committee "called" Elizabeth Ross [later Haynes] as a Special Worker for Colored Students. In addition to Student Associations, Ross visited the few "Colored" City Associations (in Philadelphia, Baltimore, D.C., and New York City) and reported to the Student Committee that the Associations had a "very vague idea of the object of the work" and the City Associations had a "general feeling of doubt towards the National Association" as to its sincerity of interest in their work. She called for increased training, more "sectional" conferences, and advocated for a general secretary in the city field.

Elizabeth Ross and Addie Waites Hunton both continued to study the "city problems" on a part-time basis. Ross, did this in addition to her work with the Student Associations, and Hunton, as a Special Worker. The National Association regularly received requests from cities eager to organize a new "colored" association. The working assumption of all was that city Associations would be segregated and many of the "Colored" Associations were initially affiliated directly with the National Association "until such time as it is possible to effect a branch relationship with the local Association" (City Committee Minutes, December 1910).

As a general rule, the National Association was wary of encouraging the formation of new Associations of any kind unless there was adequate community and financial support to sustain them. Eager for the new "Colored" Associations to succeed, Hunton prepared a list of suggestions related to the colored work in cities which echoed similar reports by "extension" secretaries all over the country and in the foreign field. There must be careful planning to insure a well-prepared Board of Directors and sufficient financial support, plus trained secretaries. She argued that any city lacking these essentials should be held off.

As the number of Colored City Associations grew, many of them administered from the National Office, the need for a full-time secretary for Colored Work in Cities became more acute, and finally the National Association hired Eva Bowles in 1913.

A "new light" (Louise Holmquist, Report to Department of Method, 30 September 1914) was brought to the work of the YWCA as a whole as a result of the May 1914 Negro Student Convention called by John R. Mott. Mott's intention was to "call to definite Christian service the leading colored men and women of the United States" (Addie W. Hunton, Report to Department of Method, 25 March 1914). The Convention brought together Black students and educators with "a few sympathetic white friends" mainly from the YMCA, YWCA, and other Christian associations. Up to that point, the social gospel promoted by the Federal Council of Churches had been defined primarily in terms of capital versus labor and efforts to bring justice to the working class. Convention speakers linked the social gospel to race issues and argued that it was the duty of Christian organizations to help bring justice to African-Americans. In her quarterly report to the Student Committee of September 1914, Colored Student Secretary Josephine Pinyon expressed her response to the Convention this way: "Now there is something that will make people realize that the colored work is . . . an integral and by no means negligible part of the responsibility assumed when the National Board was organized."

This conference was followed in 1915 by the YWCA's first national Conference on Colored Work in Louisville, Kentucky. Here, the Association codified its "branch policy." The policy sought to unite all YWCA programs in a city under a single administrative unit, known as the Central Branch. Other centers, including "Colored" Associations, "Oriental" Associations, International Institutes, cafeterias, boarding homes, and neighborhood "geographic" Associations would be under administrative control of the Central Branch and share finances.

Those in the National Association looking for progress in interracial cooperation hoped that this strategy would foster cooperative relationships and committees, and provide more reliable financing of the work. In reality, leadership positions in central Associations were overwhelmingly held by white women who often were not particularly interested in sharing power or changing the status quo in race relations.

When the U.S. joined World War I, the YWCA became a member of the United War Work Campaign, an organization formed to raise and distribute funds to aid war relief efforts at home and abroad. The YWCA raised money, recruited war workers, and established Industrial War Service Centers and Hostess Houses. The Centers provided rest and recreation for women workers in industry. The Hostess Houses were places where servicemen could relax and visit with female friends and relations in a wholesome environment. Due to the perceived inappropriateness of white women providing recreational services for Black servicemen, the YWCA established separate "colored" Industrial Service Centers and Hostess Houses and facilitated an associated expansion of "Colored" City branches. The work, which represented a dramatic expansion of staff and program for African-Americans, was directed from the national office by Eva Bowles. A national staff which had consisted of two Black secretaries in 1917, grew to 13 in 1919. At the local level, the number of "Colored" Branches increased from 16 to 49 and secretaries from 9 to 99.

African-American staff and members believed the resounding success of the wartime and extended "continuation" programs had proved them capable and deserving of leadership in the Association. An infrastructure of Branches now existed, but official YWCA policy still placed them under the direction of white-dominated central City Associations.

The YW was under attack for its public advocacy for peace and disarmament and for its stands on labor laws, particularly workers' right to collective bargaining. These attacks had a very direct effect on YWCA finances during the hard economic times of the 1920s-30s. Rather than opening itself to a whole new area for criticism, the already hesitant Association returned to its pre-war policy of deference to southern white women and did not push for change.

Once the administration of "Colored" Branches became the responsibility of Community Associations, national staff members shifted their focus from direct service to Associations to "interracial education," efforts mainly directed at the YWCA's white members and the public at large. Eva Bowles and others in the National Association hoped that these increased efforts, along with exposure through personal contact at interracial meetings, would gradually convince the white membership to make race relations a primary concern of the Association. The staff produced a wide array of program materials including skits, articles, newsletters, study outlines, and books to inform about the issues and offer effective techniques for group interracial work.

But real progress was slow. It was not until 1922 that it became policy for National Convention to provide interracial accommodations so that Black delegates could attend. At a time when other constituent groups were establishing Assemblies and Councils to determine program and policy for their membership, the National Board recommended creation of a Council on Colored Work in 1922. This Council did not function in the same way as the Student, Industrial, and Business and Professional Councils which were responsible for oversight of a Program determined by self-governing membership groups. Its members, both white and Black, were selected by the National Board, and it functioned more like a traditional "top-down" National Board Committee.

By the 1930s some white women in the YWCA came to understand that some of the problems African-Americans faced, such as lynching and other forms of racial violence, would not be solved through education alone. The death of a much-loved and highly respected former national staff member, Juliette Derricotte, in 1931 as a result of receiving sub-standard medical care after a car accident in segregated Georgia, increased the sense of urgency about refocusing the Association's efforts to address race problems.

As the National Association moved into more active "interracial" (as opposed to separate "Colored") work, civil rights issues were added to the Public Affairs Program. The Program for 1932-34 included "Study and support of measures for enlarged economic opportunities for the Negro race" and "Local YWCA efforts to foster right public opinion which shall be effective in dealing with the menace of lynching and mob violence in every form." "Convention Bulletin Number V-Looking Toward a National Public Affairs Program for 1934-36" includes a section called "Our Responsibility in Regard to Special Problems of Minority Groups." Describing the relations of white and Black people in America as "crucial for the future welfare of both races and for the progress of our democratic institutions," it reads in part, "[p]roposals for different standards . . . which will place Negroes on a lower or segregated status should be opposed." Interracial cooperation, and equal treatment and opportunities for all people continued as major Public Affairs themes for the rest of the century.

The staff reorganization and reduction of 1931-32 eliminated many of the specialist staff positions and moved some from direct advisory service to Community Associations into an educational role. It also eliminated the Council of Colored Work. With this reorganization came the beginnings of a shift in terminology from "Colored" Work to "Interracial" Work. Eva Bowles, moved from the Field Division to the Laboratory Division, initially praised the new staff allocation as "a real achievement in interracial set-up," but Bowles' niece later wrote that her aunt felt the reorganization would diminish "participation of Negroes in the policy making" of the Association ("Eva Bowles" by Clarice Winn Davis in the Dictionary of American Negro Biography). Bowles resigned in the spring of 1932.

As the YWCA of the USA moved out of its initial period of expansion, it felt the need of a device for measuring the quality of its Associations' programs. The Standards Study (1935-39) defined a set of "principles by which Associations may be recognized as members of the National Association in good standing or sub-standard." Part Two of the Study, "The Branch Study," presented at Convention in 1938, looked at the "particularly difficult administrative and structural problem" of the metropolitan Association with one or more branches. Some city Associations had developed policies which excluded members of "Negro" branches from "electoral membership" in the Central Association, claiming that status as "branch electors," with a say only in branch activities, qualified as "electoral membership," a basic element of membership in the National Association.

Pointing up the inherent injustice of such policies, the Branch Study presented the issue in stark terms: "If a local Association should write into its constitution that electorship was open only to 'white' women and girls, that Association would automatically be disaffiliated from the national organization." Noting that "the growing self-consciousness of the racial branches has made this problem more apparent," the Branch Study went on to state in unequivocal terms that the practice by some Associations, of excluding Black members from electoral membership in the Association "violates the Constitutional integrity of the Associations concerned."

The 1940 Convention authorized a Commission to Study Interracial Practices in Community YWCAs, which recommended "that the implications of the YWCA Purpose be recognized as involving the inclusion of Negro women and girls in the main stream of Association life, and that such inclusion be adopted as a conscious goal." The Commission's final report, Interracial Practices in Community YWCAs, was issued in 1944 with a set of recommendations. After two years of follow up, the 1946 National Convention adopted the Interracial Charter, which not only pledged to work towards an interracial experience within the YW, but also to fight against injustice on the basis of race, "whether in the community, the nation or the world."

Despite this declaration of intent, progress, particularly at the local level, was not especially brisk. At the Convention following the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954, the National Association returned to the issue of the racial segregation in the Association. Various Committees, Advisory Groups, and Work Groups reviewed the Association's progress. The Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Work on Racial Integration (1957-58), a special committee preparing material for the 1958 Convention Workbook, recommended formation of the Committee on Racial Inclusiveness to assure that Convention actions on Racial Inclusiveness were interpreted and carried out in every part of Association life.

With the increasing momentum of the Civil Rights movement, the YWCA's public advocacy activities increased. The National Student Council was particularly active in sit-ins and protests.

At its meeting in June of 1963 the National Board allocated funds to launch a country-wide Action Program for Integration and Desegregation of Community YWCAs. Dorothy Height took leave from her position as Associate Director for Training to head the program. With passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 "the practices implied in our Interracial Charter" became law.

At the end of the two-year Action Program in 1965, the National Board adopted a proposal to accelerate the work "in going beyond token integration and making a bold assault on all aspects of racial segregation." It set aside $200,000 to support the effort, establishing the Office of Racial Integration (re-named Office of Racial Justice in 1969) as part of the Executive Office. In her role as its first Director, Dorothy Height helped to monitor the Association's progress toward full integration, kept abreast of the civil rights movement, facilitated "honest dialogue," aided in making best use of African-American leadership (both volunteer and staff), and helped in their recruitment and retention.

Nearly thirty years after the Branch Study Report of 1938 had brought the constitutional implications of segregated Association practices to the attention of the National Association, some Associations continued to resist meaningful integration. Hoping that persuasion and education would ultimately prevail, the National Association also moved in 1967 to amend the YWCA Constitution so as to make full integration of Community Associations a condition for continued affiliation with the National Association. The Office of Racial Justice sponsored the Dialogue Program in 1967-68 in which Community and Student YWCAs held dialogue group workshops. In the following year Racial Justice Institutes were led by National Board members and staff all over the country to bring greater awareness to local YWCAs of race relations in the United States and to provide resources to encourage black economic and community development.

Administrative History
1907/8-Special Workers in Student Department
1913-Secretaries for Colored Work; Colored Work, Cities; and Colored Schools in Method Department
1916Secretaries for Colored Work, Cities; and Colored Schools in Method Department
1917Secretary for Colored Work, Cities; Special Worker, Colored; in Department of Method; Special Workers for War Work Council
1918-19Secretary for Colored Work, Cities; Special Worker, Colored Schools; Colored Work, Industrial; and Special War Work in Department of Method; Special Workers for War Work Council
1920Secretaries for Colored Work, Cities; Girls' Work, Colored; and Colored Work, Student in Department of Research and Method; Secretaries for Student Colored Work in Field Work Department; Special Workers in Continuation Committee staff
1921-22Secretaries for Colored Work, Cities; and Girls' Work, Colored in Research and Method Department and Secretaries for Colored Work, Student; and Colored Work, Cities in Field Work Department; and Industrial, Colored on Post-Continuation Committee staff.
1923-24Secretaries in City Department, Student Department, and Girl Reserve Department of the Field Division
1925-26Administrator in City Department, and Secretary in the Girl Reserve Department of the Field Division and Administrator in the National Student Council
1927-30Administrators of Colored Work in the City Department of the Field Division and in the National Student Council
1932-39staff for Colored Work and Interracial Relations/Education in National Services Division and Program staff in Laboratory Division
1940-49Program staff in Community Division
1965-71Office of Racial Integration/Racial Justice (name change 1969)

Scope and Content-Part 2. "Colored," and "Interracial," Work, 1906-70

Records related to "Colored" and "Interracial" work consist of general historical materials; committee minutes; files on related activities in various YWCA departments; files on policies and practices of Community Associations; records of YWCA and National Conferences, Consultations and Workshops; records of relations with a few related organizations; programs and projects files; publications; reference files; reports; studies; and training materials.

The records in this section largely consist of materials gathered together under "Interracial" in the National Association's central Subject File and focus almost entirely on relationships between Black and white women. These items were compiled from various department and committee records to provide YWCA staff with useful information about the subject. While they provide a serviceable introduction to the work, there is much material elsewhere in the records, particularly in the various departments in which the "colored" secretaries served. In fact, the central nature of this difficult struggle in YWCA history means that there is almost no portion of the records where the topic is entirely absent.

Included are selected reports, memoranda, and other general materials about "Colored" and "Interracial" work in various YWCA departments. The Public Affairs files are especially extensive. Administrative responsibility for racial justice activities was more centralized after establishment of the Office of Racial Integration in 1965, and especially after the One Imperative Convention in 1970. [see "Racial Justice" work below]

Over the years YWCA staff compiled information for its central Subject Files on African-American staff members, actions taken at Convention involving the constituency and racial justice issues, and YWCA policies and statements about the work and about YWCA-owned properties. There is also extensive historical research on the "Colored" Work in the YWCA, 1907-20 by Jane Olcott Waters.

Self-studies, dated between 1919 and 1959 and primarily about "racial inclusiveness" policies in Community Associations, indicate both the YWCA's dogged efforts to achieve meaningful integration within the Association, and the slow pace of progress. The Studies perhaps demonstrate most clearly the difficulties of being a national membership-directed organization in a country with such widely divergent attitudes.

Publications include pamphlets, books, study outlines, program materials, and serials. There are publications about YWCA work with African-American women and about YWCA policies and practices; a history of the Work of Colored Women during World War I; and techniques for improving race relations, including program suggestions and educational materials.

The "Interracial" records also contain files on racist incidents involving YWCA staff and the National Association's response. These include correspondence and other materials about the death of Juliette Derricotte.

The Minutes and Reports filed here are of the Committees with primary responsibility for "Colored" work, interracial education, and racial justice policies, 1917-70. The Reports include some of the regular secretarial reports written by African-American staff members (others can be found in the records of their Department or Committee in other Record Groups), some miscellaneous reports, and three 1950s reports on racial inclusiveness and combating racism.

Conference files include reports, brochures, and local arrangements materials related to YWCA "Colored" and Branch Conferences, and other YWCA Conferences and workshops for training and interracial dialogue. There are also files on a few national non-YWCA conferences on race relations and civil rights.

The bulk of the Project files are related to the Action Program, Project Equality, and the Dialogue Program from the 1960s.

Microfilmed Records, 1906-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The "Interracial" records and Minutes and Reports on the microfilm were not discarded after filming, so most of the microfilmed records can also be consulted in original format.

The Local Associations files include records of interactions between "Colored" Branches (often named Phyllis Wheatley Branch) and the National Association. They appear on the microfilm (along with other types of branches and International Institutes) following the general records for that Association. For example, under North Carolina, general records about the Charlotte Association appear on reel 199 at microdex 3. These are followed by "Charlotte-Phyllis Wheatley Branch.") These records were discarded after filming, so are only available on microfilm.

Records can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • Colored Work [includes Colored Work Council and other groups as well as "History of Colored Work, 1907-20" compiled by Jane Olcott Waters]
    • Racial Justice Committee
    • Race Relations Committee
  • Subject Files
    • Interracial
    • Fields and Field Work, Policy, Colored Work 1921
  • Local Associations
    • Usually under Phyllis Wheatley Branch, filed alphabetically by state and then City/Name of the Association

Original Format Records, 1907-2002, n.d., 18 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The records in this section are arranged in the following units

  • General and History
  • Committees
  • Departments, Divisions, and Offices
  • Community Associations
  • Conventions, Conferences, and Consultations
  • Organizations
  • Programs and Projects
  • Publications
  • Reference materials
  • Reports
  • Studies
  • Training


Historical Note

Just prior to the 1970 Convention, 500 Black women came together for a National Conference of Black Women in the YWCA. Their report to the full YWCA membership at Convention said in part:

"We are solidly united in determination to close the gap between the YWCA ideals as stated in the purpose and YWCA practices. We will no longer tolerate false liberalism . . . Recognizing that the YWCA cannot be all things to all people, we demand that it put its full force behind one issue inherent in all of the imperatives stated in the 1970 Convention Work Book. That imperative is the elimination of racism wherever it exists and by any means necessary."

After intense discussion, the Convention delegates voted to adopt "The One Imperative."

Following Convention, the Office of Racial Justice sponsored a series of workshops, institutes, consultations, and meetings as part of the One Imperative Program. Various groups of YWCA women-Asian-American, Native-American, Puerto Rican, white, black, and others--attended consultations. In the course of this process, the YWCA's goal of "integration and desegregation" was recharacterized as a racial and social justice agenda. What had been defined by the Association as essentially a white and black issue, now encompassed all ethnic groups.

The One Imperative Program also included the Action Audit for Change, a process by which Community and Student Associations audited their progress on racial justice issues including policies and programs. The National Board went through a similar process in the later 1970s. As of the 1976 Convention, regular Action Audits were made part of the periodic comprehensive review of Associations that were required for continuing affiliation with the National Association.

In the 1990s Racial Justice staff worked to document and distribute successful racial justice and diversity initiatives; develop racial justice program resources and provide training; work with associations to develop strategies to eliminate institutional racism in education, law enforcement, housing, health care, and financial institutions at local, state and national level; and plan two public awareness events, the National Day of Commitment to Eliminate Racism, and the YWCA Week Without Violence. By adding "Human Rights," to the name of the office in 1997, the Association officially extended its work to fight oppression of all groups, not just those based upon race or ethnicity.

Administrative History
1969-71Office of Racial Justice
1972-c.1983Center for Racial Justice under Program and Development Unit
1984-91Assistant to Executive Director for Racial Justice in Executive Office
Sep 1992-Racial Justice Center
1997-Office of Racial Justice and Human Rights

Scope and Content-Part 3. "Racial Justice" Work, 1970-2002

Records related to "Racial Justice" Work consist of general historical materials; committee records; Racial Justice Center and Office files; general and reference files on American Indian and Mexican-American women; information about racial justice programs at Community and Student Associations; Conference files; program files; information about a few public advocacy activities; publications; and training materials.

Though the records reflect the expanded Racial Justice agenda, which included all women of color and eventually all oppressed groups, but the bulk of the records deal with black and white relations.

As is the case elsewhere in the records, very few records have survived from between 1970 and 1988.

The records document the intense activity following the National Convention in 1970 and its associated institutes, consultations, meetings, and workshops, as well as the continuing One Imperative Program. Conference files include planning materials and reports from conferences and consultations with black, white, Native American, Asian-American, and Puerto Rican women in the YWCA. One Imperative Program files include records about the development of the Action Audit for Change self-study process for Community and Student YWCAs. The 1970s also saw a flurry of new Racial Justice publications.

Records from the 1990s and up to 2001 indicate a similar concentration of activity.

There are files on the Racial Justice [and Human Rights] Office's responses to renewed Ku Klux Klan activity and hate crimes against homosexuals in late 1990s as well records of the Racial Justice Convocation in 1990 to develop a Racial Justice agenda for the Twenty-first century and a follow-up Conference in 1999. There are also planning materials, correspondence, and other records related to the public awareness campaigns of the late 1990s, including the National Day of Commitment to Eliminate Racism and its associated Stop Racism Youth Challenge and Race Against Racism; as well as Statewide Days of Dialogue on Race Relations in 1998.

1990s records of training activities include the Mission Empowerment process, stressing the One Imperative, and the Racial Justice Training Manual, 1996.

Microfilmed Records, 1906-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel List]

The records that were microfilmed date through 1970 only, so there is little on the microfilm related to the Racial Justice Work. What is there can be found in the Subject Files under Convention 1970 and Interracial.

Original Format Records, 1907-2002, n.d., 18 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The records in this section are arranged in the following units

  • General and History
  • Committees
  • Offices
  • American Indian Women
  • Community and Student Associations
  • Conferences, Consultations, and Convocations
  • Mexican-American Women
  • Programs
  • Public Advocacy
  • Publications
  • Training

Related Materials

Elsewhere in this Series

Race issues were so central to Association activities that there is related material in the conference records, publications, and program materials in the files of every constituent group.

Subseries A. Employed Women includes information about African-American women in Industry and "Household Employment."

Subseries B. Immigration and Foreign Communities Up until 1970, work on behalf of Asian-Americans, Mexican-Americans and other groups was considered part of the Immigration work.

Subseries D. Teen-Age and Younger Girls includes extensive records of segregated Teen conferences on microfilm.

Elsewhere in this Record Group

Microfilmed records of the National Association of Professional Workers in SERIES II. TRAINING AND PERSONNEL includes a study on the status of "Negro" workers in the YWCA, 1944-45.

SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY has extensive files on the YWCA's civil rights efforts.

SERIES V. PROGRAM SUBJECTS contains publications and scripts in the Music, and Pageantry and Drama subseries reflecting the National staff's experimentation with many different techniques for presenting concepts.

The YWCA's main serial the Association Monthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine in SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS contains many articles related to race issues.

SERIES VII. WAR WORK AND DEFENSE SERVICES has records related to the greatly expanded "Colored" Work during World War I, and the Japanese Evacuee Project during World War II.

In other Record Groups

Materials relating to race relations and racial justice can be found throughout the records, especially in the following:

RECORD GROUP 3. NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE, SERIES I. GENERAL ADMINISTRATION under Racial Justice has correspondence related to Civil Rights activities dating from the late-1950s through the mid-1960s.

RECORD GROUP 4. NATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND CONFERENCES has records of resolutions and actions, plus reports of major studies presented to the membership at Convention. Proceedings often include extensive transcriptions of discussions and debate at Convention.

RECORD GROUP 7. STUDENT WORK Since the first African-American national staff members were employees in the Student Department, the earliest records about the work can be found in this Record Group. Through the years, the Students often advocated the more radical positions in the Association. They were active in the Civil Rights Movement and in other racial justice activities and participated in a number of "human relations" summer projects in the 1960s.

RECORD GROUP 8. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS Local Associations files on the Microfilm contain some records of interactions with various kinds of Branches including "Colored" or "Negro" and Japanese Branches. There are also community studies on interracial relations and studies and reports on work with Mexican women. Original format Community Associations files contain some Action Reports completed as part of the accreditation process.

RECORD GROUP 10. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS contains footage of 1990s Convocations, conferences, and meetings, as well as a variety of educational video presentations about racial justice issues.

Elsewhere in the Sophia Smith Collection:

See also the personal papers of Dorothy Spellman, R. Elizabeth Johns, Norma Stauffer, and Dorothy Height; and the Southern Women, the Student YWCA, and Race (1920-1944) Collection.


YWCA work with young girls began in the U.S. as early as 1881 with the founding of the Little Girls' Christian Association of Oakland, California. Girls' YWCA Clubs were formed in City Associations, in private high schools under the auspices of the Student Department (which had responsibility for the "older younger girl"), in churches, and, in parts of the country where there was no nearby YWCA, they were sometimes established in public high schools.

At the time of the founding of the National Association in 1906-07 there were so many younger girls taking part in the movement that the first national conference of YWCA employed officers in 1909 took as its general topic "The Young Girl." Across the country and without much supervision, the girls had proved themselves "on hand and not under foot" (Elizabeth Wilson Fifty Years of Association Work Among Young Women) to such a degree that the National Association took note and began to coordinate the work.

The National Association added a Special Worker for Junior Work to the City Department in the Department of Method in 1911. After studying the situation, she concluded that the Association would only "obtain satisfactory results" by placing the junior work "on a par with all other departmental work being done in local Associations," noting that this would never be accomplished "so long as the junior work is regarded as an appendage to be tolerated, rather than as a legitimate piece of Association work."

Many Community Associations proceeded to establish a "Junior Department" to oversee Clubs and activities for members between the ages of ten and sixteen. They were encouraged to hire trained Secretaries dedicated to the work. "It began to be recognized by all that, if the Association movement was really to help girls to help themselves to become women citizens of intelligence and power, there must be secretaries in the movement who understood educational methods of work with girls of this age." ("History of the Growth of Work with Younger Girls in the YWCA," by Gertrude Gogin, The Workshop Series no. 1, circa 1927)

The new Girls Work Secretaries, began experimenting with the "fundamentals of character-building work with girls." A plethora of names and schemes emerged for these groups, among them "Rainbow Clubs" for very young girls, "Be Square Clubs" for young working girls, and for the rest, "Girl Aides," "Silver Link Girls," "Four Square Girls," and "Triangle Girls." Concurrently, the National Association encouraged a new approach to Association work in general, seeking to adapt the organization to the girl rather than adapting the girl to the organization. The "most important principle beginning persistently to emerge was that a girl's real growth is dependent upon her learning for herself through experience." ("History of the Growth of Work with Younger Girls in the YWCA," by Gertrude Gogin, The Workshop Series no. 1, circa 1927) In order to be effective it could not be work "for" girls, but work "with" girls.

At Convention in 1913, the membership voted, at the request of the girls, to abandon the term "Junior Department" in favor of their preferred "Girls' Department" and in 1915 the age range for membership in Girls' programs was changed to twelve to eighteen years. The Eight Week Club scheme, inaugurated in the summer of 1913, paired college students home for the summer with younger girls to form clubs of "friendship and service" during the school vacation. The plan gave the college women a chance to practice their leadership skills and introduce a new generation to the work of the Association.

World War I brought about a desire in the general population to organize for community service. According to the new National Girls Work Secretary, Gertrude Gogin, this general desire came to include "the understanding that one of the most vital factors in community life was the girl in her teens." Gogin, began her work late in 1917 with six months' study of existing programs. She concluded that "the only way to have constructive work with younger girls was to have a national program which would bring about unity and standards to our work." " . . . [W]e have had any one of 57 varieties according to the taste and ability of our local Associations. This has meant no really constructive help from headquarters to fields nor from fields to locals. There was no means for transmitting ideas for everyone was doing something different." (Gertrude Gogin, Annual Report to the Department of Method, 1918)

To remedy this situation, the National Association established the Girl Reserve program, which was "born" in September of 1918. The National Association distributed written materials outlining "specific and different programs" for grade school girls, high school girls, and young employed girls (girls at work under age eighteen). At the same time Girls' Work Secretaries were added to nine of the Field staffs. Girl Reserve staff worked in close cooperation with the Student Department on the high school program and the Industrial Department on the program for young employed girls. Designed to give a sense of unity but not uniformity to the work, the program included special Girl Reserve songs, ceremonials, conferences, training programs, and a uniform.

In a statement written about 1923 at the request of the YMCA, Gertrude Gogin outlined the program and explained, "The name, 'Girl Reserve' is not a military term. A Girl Reserve is a girl who is constantly storing up, putting in reserve, more of those qualities which will help her to take her place as a Christian citizen in her home, her school, her church, and her community."

The earliest forms of organization for the youngest members were "Triangle Clubs," small groups of fifteen to twenty seventh and eighth graders. Senior high-school student clubs were self-governing with a slate of officers and standing committees. Young employed girls belonged to "YGBI" (Younger Girls in Business and Industry) Clubs, a program that placed a greater emphasis on recreation.

The rapidly increasing contingent of Girl Reserve Secretaries formed their own section of the National Association of Employed Officers at their 1922 meeting.

By 1927 Gogin described the work as "not a pattern program of work for girls, but . . . instead an evolving educational process of work with girls." It was a "movement" based on modern scientific educational methods, attempting "to help girls better to understand how to make right choices." ("History of the Growth of Work with Younger Girls in the YWCA," by Gertrude Gogin, The Workshop Series no. 1, circa 1927)

Publications were one of the primary contributions of the National Association to the movement. In addition to a lively and informative serial publication, known as The Bookshelf, the Womans Press cranked out a wide array of books, manuals, pamphlets, work tools, skits, etc., for the girls themselves, for their parents, and for their club leaders. Designed with the younger audience in mind, they deal with classic YWCA topics such as citizenship, religion, health, and interracial and international relations. The National Staff also made a sort of specialty of female adolescent development, writing books, articles, and pamphlets for use by the Association and the general public.

Many girls had their first YWCA exposure at summer camps run by Community Associations. By the late 1920s, the Girl Reserve Program included Regional Conferences for those who went on to deeper involvement with the Girl Reserve. GR Conferences, like those for other groups, combined recreational and educational activities. They offered experience in leadership, democracy in action, and community-building. All of the standard YWCA subjects were presented using techniques designed to be age-appropriate.

After World War II, the Association noted less interest among the girls in "long-continued club projects of a more serious nature," and increased desire for more informal recreational activities, particularly "good-times in the evening" in a co-educational (but chaperoned) setting. Ever younger members were requesting co-educational parties and the "help on boy-girl relationships." Program focused on "problems of social concern," career/work decisions, community service projects, the arts, and religion. ("New Times Bring New Ways of Work in the YWCA" by Elise Moller, Religious Education, March-April 1943)

As the program adjusted to the post-war world, it changed name to "Y-Teen" in 1946 "recognizing that youth is not merely in reserve to adulthood, but is a unique and important time of development." ("Youth Development in the YWCA: Goals and Issues," 1994) In 1947 the Y-Teens held their first joint high school conference with the YMCA. As with the college students, there was much interest among the girls in cooperative work with the YMCA in the 1940s and 1950s. In 1948, the National Association initiated "Teen Roll Call" (later known as "Y-Teen Week"), a campaign to build national and community support for the teen program. Y-Teens were invited to attend Convention as visiting delegates for the first time in 1949. The events included the first Teen Assembly.

It was not until 1956 that this younger constituency had its first National Conference. The emphasis for this and two later national conferences in 1959 and 1965 was youth's role in national and world affairs.

After World War II, the National Association eliminated or drastically cut back on Program for most constituent groups. By the 1960s, national programs were most likely to be short-term, funded through U.S. government or foundation grants, and run at a few Community Associations on a more-or-less "demonstration" basis as a means of devising program models that could be replicated by other organizations. They tended to be "problem-focused" and designed to serve youth in high risk environments. These programs included the Summer Youth Demonstration Project (1967), the National Youthworker Education Project (1970s), the Juvenile Justice Program (circa 1978-81); the Youth Employability Project (1980-83), the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program (1980s), and Women as Preventors-An Adult-Teen Partnership dealing with issues related to alcohol abuse (1980s).

In response to student unrest and the youth movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s, a National Staff reorganization of the early 1970s briefly linked responsibility for teens, college students, and younger YWCA members in a Youth Constituencies Unit. In 1973 Convention voted to authorize a National Teen Organization to bring teens more directly into the National Association's decision-making process and the Convention voting age was lowered from seventeen to fifteen. It was an acknowledgment by the whole Association that its long term health depended on the involvement of its younger members.

One product of this era was the Teen Counseling Project of 1973-74. Though carried out in a different manner, the Project was essentially one more example of the traditional YWCA approach to its work, a study to determine the needs of the group. The National Teen Organization planned the project in cooperation with the YWCA Resource Center on Women and the Bank Street College of Education. Teens in four diverse communities (El Paso, Texas; Greenville, South Carolina; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and South Bend, Indiana) helped to design a questionnaire to collect information from teen women of widely diverse backgrounds. With the data collected, the Project gathered follow-up information by holding a workshop in each city for teens who had completed the questionnaires. Each workshop was planned and run by teens with help from two adult consultants.

Among the top priorities detailed in the Project's final report, "Attention is Needed Action is Called For: Teen Women Talk About Their Needs," were help in finding jobs and job training, sex education (particularly birth control information), more and better recreational opportunities, and drug information and rehabilitation programs.

In the late 1980s, the National Association obtained funding for production of three videos to present information about sexuality and pregnancy prevention to teens. "It's Okay to Say No Way!" (1986) is a music video "to convey a message in their medium, using their language." "Lovesick" and "Crush" (1989) were designed to encourage discussion and feature eleven to sixteen year olds talking about love, life, honesty, and friendship.

Another of the YWCA's periodic Studies to assess needs, the Youth Development Planning Project (1992-94), sought to change the emphasis of YWCA programs for teens in light of research that showed that problem-focused youth programming had only limited success. The "new" approach, "positive youth development," brought back some traditional YWCA girls work themes. Though the terms used to describe the program were of the 1990s, its aims hearkened back to the concept of the Girl Reserve as "a girl who is constantly storing up, putting in reserve, more of those qualities which will help her to take her place as a Christian citizen in her home, her school, her church, and her community."

The outcome of the study was the Youth Development Program, introduced in 1994. It sought to replace quick fixes for young people in crisis with long-term programming aimed at helping ten- to eighteen-year-olds develop to their full potential. While Community Associations continued their prevention and remediation programs for youth in high risk environments, the new approach emphasized "positive youth development" with core program themes of Empowerment, Health Promotion and Sports, Community and Leadership, and Family Life. National initiatives under this program included TechGYRLS, NetPrepGYRLS, the Mott Pregnancy Prevention Evaluation, YWCA/PepsiCo Girls Leadership Program, and a variety of sports and fitness programs for girls.

Administrative History
[1910]Secretaries for high schools, and private and preparatory schools under Student Committee in the Method Department
1911Special Worker, Junior Work, under City Committee and Secretaries for high schools, and private and preparatory schools under Student Committee in the Method Department
1913Secretary for Girls' Work under Method Department and Secretary for secondary schools in Student Committee
1919Department name changed to Research and Method
1920Secretaries for Girls' work; Girls' work, Colored; and secondary schools in Research and Method
1920 FebGirls' Work Bureau
1923Girl Reserve Department of Field Division
1932Girl Reserve staff in Laboratory Division and National Services Division
1933Special Worker in Laboratory Division (study on work with younger girls); and Girl Reserve Program in Leadership Division
1934-39Girl Reserve Program in Leadership Division
1940-42Group Interests in Community Division
1943-44Program Staff ("Girl Reserve") in Community Division
1945Constituency ("Younger Girls") in Community Division
1946Constituency ("Teen-Age Program") in Community Division
1947Community Division-headquarters based and regionally based
1950Community Division, just headquarters based
1952Leadership Services?
1959Consultant, Teenage Program in Leadership Services
1960-70Consultant, Teenage Program in Community Division
1971-Teen in Youth Constituencies (headquarters and region)
1977-83Teen Program Consultant in Program Unit
1984-92?Teen Program Consultant and Teen Sexuality Education Program in Program Services Division
1994-Youth Development Program

Scope and Content

Records in this Subseries include general and historical files; department and committee records; conference records; program and project files; publications; reference materials; reports, studies, and a few scrapbooks and records from Community Association camps and clubs.

Because work with teenagers was seen as the future of the organization, all of the standard YWCA topics appear in the teen materials. Records related to "Girls Work" appear to have been gathered together and maintained as a category beginning with the staff reorganization after World War I. These records contain isolated earlier items, but researchers should also consult minutes of the Student Department (in RECORD GROUP 7), the Research and Method Department (in SERIES I of this Record Group), and reports by Junior Work and Girls' Work Field Secretaries in the City, Town, and Rural Communities Departments (in RECORD GROUP 8.)

The extensive Conference materials (primarily on the microfilm) can include: planning materials such as, local arrangements, mailings, study materials; items for use during the conference such as programs, schedules, handouts, training materials, daily meditations, skit scripts, song sheets, and bulletins with drawings and other art work, poetry and fiction by conference participants; summary materials such as reports, participants lists, financial, training materials, and evaluations. The records contain files on separate segregated conferences in the Southern Region up to 1946.

Programs and Projects files are mainly from the 1970s-90s and include projects related to employment, pregnancy prevention and sexuality education, empowerment and "development."

The extensive teen publications include handbooks and yearbooks for Girl Reserves and Y-Teens; program materials; educational materials on "citizenship," health, sex education, interpersonal relations, interracial relations, leadership, and World Fellowship; and manuals and training materials for staff and volunteers working with teens. The main teenage serial, The Bookshelf, is especially comprehensive, with articles written by a wide variety of National staff members. Subjects covered include nature study, interracial relations, child labor, employment/industrial issues, games, arts and crafts, sex education, health, nutrition, recreation, citizenship, psychology, vocations, and environmental conservation.

Secretaries' reports provide wonderful documentation of the expansion of the teen work in the 1920s and early 1930s. Studies include the main 1920s-40s YWCA studies of the teen field and an extensive 1998-99 survey of adolescent programs offered by Community YWCAs.

Microfilmed Records, 1906-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel list]

For the years covered by the microfilm, the teen materials are much more extensive on microfilm than what has survived in original format, the major exception being publications. The Conference files are especially rich, and there are good materials about teen projects during World War II. Teen records can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • Girl Reserve Staff and Committee
    • Teenage Program Committee
  • Subject Files
    • Economics, [National YWCA] Consultation [on work with economically deprived adolescent girls], 1965-67
    • Fields and Field Work, Policy, Younger Girls
    • Girl Reserve
    • Industrial, Young Girls
    • Labor, Youth
    • Leadership, N.A.P.W., Girl Reserve [Section]
    • O.O. [Outside Organizations]--Religious, YMCA, Hi-Y
    • O.O. [Outside Organizations]--Youth
    • Social Work
    • Teen Age
    • Y-Teen

Original Format Records, 1907-2001, 15 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder List]

The Minutes and Reports were not discarded after filming and constitute the main overlap with the microfilmed materials. The original format materials contain a larger selection of publications, including the wonderful teen serial, The Bookshelf. Programs and Projects from the late 1960s into the 1990s are fairly well documented.

The Original Format Records are arranged as follows:

  • General and History
  • Department and Committees
  • Conferences, Consultations, and Workshops
  • Programs and Projects
  • Publications
  • Reference Materials
  • Reports
  • Studies
  • Miscellaneous

Related Materials

In other Subseries in this Series:

Additional materials about the Younger Girls in Business and Industry Clubs can be found in Subseries A. Employed Women.

One of the Studies in Subseries B. Immigration and Foreign Communities is on the American-born daughters of immigrants.

In other series in this Record Group:

Some of the earliest discussions of the teen work are in the Minutes of the Department of Research and Method in SERIES I. DEPARTMENT, STAFF, AND COMMITTEES. The reports include early reports of junior and girls work secretaries.

SERIES V. PROGRAM SUBJECTS has records related to teen work in Subseries A. Camping and Outdoor Recreation, Subseries C. Music (including Girl Reserve songs and songbooks and the 1965 Y-Teen Folksong Project), and Subseries B. Health (Sports and Fitness Programs for girls, 1990s).

The YWCA's main serial, the Association Monthly/Womans Press/YWCA Magazine in SERIES VI. PUBLICATIONS contains many articles related to teen-agers in the YWCA.

In other Record Groups:

Because it was the "representative and executive" committee of the National Association, the National Board's minutes in RECORD GROUP 2. PREDECESSOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NATIONAL BOARD contain many discussions of girls and teen work.

RECORD GROUP 4. CONVENTIONS AND CONFERENCES has information about National Teen Assembly and teen participation in Convention.

Work with high school students was initially the province of the Student Department in RECORD GROUP 7. STUDENT WORK. There are also records about Eight Week Clubs.

Visitation reports of secretaries are in SERIES I. SERVICES TO COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS of RECORD GROUP 8. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS. The microfilmed records in SERIES IV. COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS FILES contain local studies of Teen Programs and needs.

RECORD GROUP 9. PHOTOGRAPHS contains many photographs of teen age program.

RECORD GROUP 10. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS includes the Youth Development Program videos "It's Okay to Say No Way!," "Lovesick," and "Crush." There are also audio and videotapes of some Teen Assemblies and Conferences from the late 1970s to the 1990s.

In personal papers:

The Elizabeth Steel Genne Papers contain additional information about the Teen Sexuality Education Project


The Young Adult constituency was a product of the post World War II era. It encompassed all members between the ages of 18 and 35, whether or not they were in school or college, or employed outside of the home. The National Association had found that membership in its remaining constituent groups (the Councils for employed women, college students, and teenagers) had declined while the number of new "YW-Wives" groups for young homemakers was growing. Unable financially to support specialized staff for all of these groups, the National Association combined them. Young Adult staff were in Leadership Services, Membership Services, and the Community Division. They were given responsibility to facilitate the activities of the Councils, Assemblies, and YW-wives groups; to act as a resource; and to produce training and written materials.

The largest groups within the new Young Adult constituency were the College Students and Teenagers. These two groups each had unique needs: while most constituent groups within the YWCA were members of Community Associations, the College Students were responsible for administering their own Associations, and effective work with teenagers required specific training. The National Association maintained staff dedicated to these two groups, and their official association with the Young Adult constituency was relatively short-lived.

Groups for "Home Women" started forming in Community YWCAs soon after World War II to provide companionship, adult education, recreation, and a "day out." They were recognized nationally as YW-Wives at the Convention in 1949. As declining participation in the Employed Women's Councils threatened their continued existence, the Employed Women and YW-Wives agreed at Convention in 1955 to try working together for the next triennium. The Young Adult Assembly emerged as "a new opportunity for all young adults to have a national voice." The group encompassed employed women, wives, and young women in YWCA residences, classes, and interest groups, but did not include College Students or Teenagers. The group adopted objectives at its National Young Adult Assembly in 1958.

As the post-war baby boom generation approached its teens, the National Association became concerned with how few of them were involved in the YWCA. It resolved at Convention in 1961 to place increasing emphasis on its work with teens and young adults.

Once again working to adapt the Association to the girl, rather than the girl to the Association, staff searched for appropriate and effective ways to structure programs for the new generation. The constituency was re-defined as encompassing 17 to 25 year olds, and groups were organized in a variety of ways, sometimes just for employed women, sometimes for the entire constituency, sometimes coeducational, and sometimes single sex.

The concerns of the group evolved as well. The post war program centered around marriage, education, establishment of a home, and choice of religious affiliation. By 1964 the priorities of the Young Adult Assembly included, education and employment, racial integration, sex morality, mental health, the role of women in society, civic responsibility and political action.

At the National Young Adult Conference, in November of 1969, the group changed its name to Young Women Committed to Action and delineated its priorities as child care, housing, drugs, and continuing education. The Conference received considerable national press attention as a "Youth Rebellion" where resolutions were put forward to legalize marijuana and "hand out the Pill." Despite its well-publicized beginnings, Young Women Committed to Action was short-lived. The group was officially discontinued at Convention in 1979 due to lack of participation.

Administrative History
1949-59Various staff members in various departments
1960-70Consultant, Young Adult Program in the Community Division
1971-79Youth Constituencies Unit

Scope and Content

Records related to the Young Adult work consist of sporadic minutes, general historical materials, conference files (1951-69), some Council records, a few program and project files, publications, and materials from a workshop in 1964.

As elsewhere, very few records have survived from 1970s and 1980s.

Microfilmed Records, 1906-70 only

[see Microfilmed Records Reel list]

The microfilmed records are more extensive than those in original format. Young Adult records can be found on the microfilm under:

  • Minutes and Reports
    • Young Adult Council
  • Subject Files
    • Young Adult
    • YWCA, Young Matrons
    • YWCA, YW-Wives

Original Format Records, 1948-75, n.d., 1.5 linear feet

[see Original Format Records Folder list]

The original format materials consist of a small amount of general historical materials, spotty minutes, publications, and some training materials from various iterations of Young Adult constituency from Home Women groups in the late 1940s to the Youth Constituencies Unit, 1974-75.

Related Materials

In other Subseries in this Series

Earlier records of some of the groups that were consolidated to form the Young Adult constituency are in Subseries A. Employed Women, Subseries D. Teen-Age and Younger Girls

In other Series in this Record Group

Other records about the YWCA's "family relations" work is in SERIES I. DEPARTMENT, STAFF, AND COMMITTEES.

Later records about YWCA activities related to child care services and advocacy are in SERIES III. PUBLIC ADVOCACY.

In other Record Groups

RECORD GROUP 3. NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE has files related to the controversy stirred by the first Young Women Committed to Action Conference in 1969.

RECORD GROUP 4. NATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND CONFERENCES has records about Convention actions related to the Young Adult constituency.

RECORD GROUP 7. STUDENT WORK has earlier and later records of the Student constituency.

RECORD GROUP 9. PHOTOGRAPHS contains photographs of YW-Wives and Young Adults.

Organization of the collection

This Series is divided into five Subseries:


Information on Use
Terms of Access and Use
Restrictions on access:

The records are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection without any additional restrictions.

Access to audiovisual materials may first require production of research copies.

Restrictions on use:

The YWCA of the USA retains copyright ownership of the records, but has authorized the Sophia Smith Collection to grant permission to publish reproductions or quotations from the records on its behalf.

Copyright to materials authored by persons other than YWCA staff may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights for permission to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Preferred Citation

Please use the following format when citing materials from this collection:

YWCA of the U.S.A. Records, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.

Additional Formats

A copy of the microfilmed records of the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records is available to borrow from the William Allan Neilson Library at Smith College via Interlibrary Loan.

To request the microfilm from our library you will need to submit the following information to your library's Interlibrary Loan department:

  • Author: Young Women's Christian Association of the U.S.A. National Board
  • Title: Records, 1876-1970 [microform]
  • WorldCat Accession Number: OCLC 57415795
  • Notes: "Call # 689" and reel number(s) you want to borrow

Full descriptions and reel lists of the microfilm are available online.

History of the Collection

The YWCA of the U.S.A. donated a portion of its records to the Sophia Smith Collection in 1964 and the remainder in 2002 and 2003.

Processing Information

Processed by Maida Goodwin, Amy Hague, Kara McClurken, Amanda Izzo, 2008 FY 07-08

Record Groups

Additional Information
Contact Information
Smith College Special Collections
Young Library
4 Tyler Drive
Northampton, MA 01063

Phone: (413) 585-2970
Fax: (413) 585-2886

Processing of the YWCA Records was made possible by the generous support of the National Historical Records and Publications Commission and the estate of Elizabeth Norris.
Contents List

Subseries A. Employed Women

General and History

General, 1900-80, n.d.

Box 467: folder 1
Thesis "Relation of Grouping, Recruiting and Induction Methods, and Program Content to the Satisfactions of Group Members: A study of the described experience of members in nine YWCA clubs for employed women (young adult) in New York City and its immediate vicinity" by Christine Maher and Lucy Waller Gilliam, Columbia University School of Social Work, 1955

Box 467: folder 2
Ohio and West Virginia Field Federation of Industrial and Mercantile Clubs, 1916-19

Box 467: folder 3
Department Store Workers, 1907, 1910

Box 467: folder 4
Co-operating Committee, Central Club of Nurses: minutes and reports, 1909-12

Box 467: folder 5-6
Younger Girls in Business and Industry (YGBI)

[see also Subseries D. Teen Age and Younger Girls Programs]

General, 1922-28, n.d.

Box 467: folder 7
Bulletins, 1923-24

Box 467: folder 8
Conferences, 1924-25

Box 467: folder 9
BP and I Staff meetings, 1946-49

Box 467: folder 10-11
Division of Community YWCAs Committee Studying the Relationship of National Councils and Assemblies to the National Board and Convention, 1947

Box 467: folder 12-13
Ad-hoc Committee to Study the Future of Business, Professional and Industrial Council and Assembly Structure, Conferences and Program, 1948-49

Box 467: folder 14-17
Joint Study Committee of the National Industrial Council and the Industrial Sub-Committee, 1947-49

Box 467: folder 18

BP and I Subcommittees (joint meetings), 1948-50

Box 468: folder 1
BP and I Experimentation Committee (strengthening of program with employed women)

General, 1948-52

Box 468: folder 2-7
Reports: experimentation in selected communities


Box 468: folder 8

Box 468: folder 9

Box 468: folder 10

Box 468: folder 11

Box 468: folder 12

Box 468: folder 13

Box 468: folder 14
New York

Box 468: folder 15
North Carolina

Box 468: folder 16
North Dakota

Box 468: folder 17

Box 468: folder 18

Box 468: folder 19
Rhode Island

Box 468: folder 20
South Carolina

Box 468: folder 21
Tennessee and Virginia

Box 468: folder 22

Box 468: folder 23
West Virginia

Box 468: folder 24
Study Project with the National Council of Churches, "The Church in Economic Life"

General, 1951-52

Box 468: folder 25
Discussion Group Reports, 1951-52

Box 469: folder 1
Conferences and Consultations

Business, Professional, and Industrial


General, 1948-49

Box 469: folder 2
Camp Gray (Industrial and YGBI), 1925-26

Box 469: folder 3-4
Cheyney Conference for Colored Girls in Business and Industry, 1921-24

Box 469: folder 5
Eastern Area

General, 1946

Box 469: folder 6
1944, 1946-50

Box 469: folder 7-12
Intermountain, Alta Lodge, Alta, Utah, 1943

Box 469: folder 13
Northwest, 1937, 1939, 1941-44, 1946

Box 469: folder 14-20


Box 469: folder 21-26

Box 470: folder 1-11
Southwest, 1943-44, 1946-49

Box 470: folder 12-17
West Central (western part of central region), 1943-44, 1946-47

Box 470: folder 18-21
Western Area/Region/Asilomar


Box 470: folder 22-25
1941-42, 1946-50

Box 471: folder 1-7

General, 1946-52, n.d.

Box 471: folder 8
Miscellaneous locations, 1949-50

Box 471: folder 9
Arizona, 1939-40

Box 471: folder 10
Eastern, 1944-45

Box 471: folder 11
California, northern, 1948-49

Box 471: folder 12
Colorado and Wyoming, 1946

Box 471: folder 13
Illinois, southern, 1944, 1949

Box 471: folder 14
Iowa, 1936-40, 1942, 1944

Box 471: folder 15-21
Northwest, 1936, 1938, 1940-42, 1946

Box 471: folder 22-26
Texas-Shreveport, 1948

Box 471: folder 27
Tri-state (Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota), 1947

Box 471: folder 28
Business, Professional, Industrial and Agricultural conferences, 1948-50

Box 471: folder 29-31
Consultation on Industrial Women Workers and Women Service Workers, Jan 1956

Box 471: folder 32
Women in the 1960s-Their Job World: A Consultation, Feb 1960

Box 471: folder 33
Employability Consultation, 1969

Box 471: folder 34


Business, Professional, and Industrial

Freedom of Action Project: report, 1937

Box 472: folder 1
Joint sessions, 1947

Box 472: folder 2
National Employed Women's Coordinating Council (NEWCC), B and P Council, and Industrial Council: minutes, 1950-51

Box 472: folder 3-4
National Employed Women's Coordinating Council

General, 1949-53

Box 472: folder 5
Audits, 1950-52

Box 472: folder 6
Projects, 1950-51

Box 472: folder 7
Area Councils

Miscellaneous, 1949-51

Box 472: folder 8
Northwest, 1938-48

Box 472: folder 9-10
Western, 1939-49

Box 472: folder 11-12
Programs and Projects

Job-Corps YWCA Extension Residence Program/Women's Job Corps Extension Residence Program



Box 472: folder 13-16
1973-75, n.d.

Box 473: folder 1
Thesis: "An Abstract of the relation of met and unmet expectations to subsequent performance by trainees in the Job Corps YWCA Extension Residence Program" by Elizabeth Locke Wadsworth, NYU, School of Education, 1973

Box 473: folder 2-7
Job Corps Center community linkages, n.d.

Box 473: folder 8
Cooperative venture with Cornell University Extension Service

General, 1968-69

Box 473: folder 9
"Findings from a Consultation on Consumer and Labor Education"

Box 473: folder 10
Los Angeles Center

General, 1964-65

Box 473: folder 11-12
Proposal, 1965

Box 473: folder 13
"Monday Memo" mailings from JC-YWCA Director to staff of JC-YWCA programs, 1968-72

Box 474: folder 1-9
The Communicator, Apr 1973-summer 1975

Box 475: folder 1-3
Women's Training Center Staff Working Papers, circa 1969

Box 475: folder 4
YWCA Jobs Network Project, 1979-80

Box 475: folder 5
Demonstration Project in Employment of Rural Women, 1978-80

Box 475: folder 6

Handbooks, 1936, 1948-49

Box 475: folder 7-9
Program, 1936-45

Box 476: folder 1
Trends in Part-Time Employment of College-Trained Women by Eva vB. Hansl, The Womans Press, 1949

Box 476: folder 2

"The Responsibility of Working Women for Dependents" by Elsie Harper and Adele van A. Frank, 1938

Box 476: folder 3


Miscellaneous, 1929-35, n.d.

Box 476: folder 4-5
Resource materials, 1930-40

Box 476: folder 6

Public Affairs, 1929-35

Box 476: folder 7
Unemployment Council, 1929-31

Box 476: folder 8
Emergency Committee on Unemployment, 1931

Box 476: folder 9
Emergency Correlating Group, 1932

Box 476: folder 10

Business and Professional Assembly, Unemployment Commission, 1931, n.d.

Box 476: folder 11
City Department, 1930-31

Box 476: folder 12
Industrial Department, 1922-30, n.d.

Box 476: folder 13
Rural Communities Department, 1930-31

Box 476: folder 14
Laboratory Division, 1931-35

Box 476: folder 15
National Services Division, 1932-37

Box 476: folder 16
Conferences and Meetings

General Conference on Emergency Brought About by the Unemployment Situation, Nov 1930

Box 476: folder 17
YWCA-YMCA Joint Luncheon to Consider the Urgency of Spiritual Claims on Youth in the 1933 Mobilization for Human Needs, Oct 1933

Box 476: folder 18
Convention resolutions, 1922-32

Box 477: folder 1

Federal Emergency Relief Administration

General, 1934-35

Box 477: folder 2
Publications and Reports, 1934

Box 477: folder 3
Work Projects for Women, 1933-34

Box 477: folder 4
The President's Emergency Committee on Employment

Correspondence and notes, 1930-31

Box 477: folder 5
Questionnaire, 1931


Box 477: folder 6
Cities over 100,000 population

Box 477: folder 7
Cities under 100,000 population

Box 477: folder 8

Box 477: folder 9
The President's Organization on Unemployment Relief, 1932

Box 477: folder 10
Local Associations, 1930-35, n.d.

Box 477: folder 11-14

Bulletins on YWCA Adjustments to New Needs (Lab Division), 1933

Box 477: folder 15-16
Community Planning for Unemployed Women Without Resources: Supplement, Aug 1932

Box 477: folder 17
Courageous Living in Times of Crisis, 1933

Box 477: folder 18
Out of a Job: Proposals for Unemployment Insurance by Elsie D. Harper, 1931

Box 477: folder 19
Program for Girls Not Yet Employed, Bulletins I-VIII, 1933-34

Box 477: folder 20-21
Series on Social Consequences of Unemployment and Mobilization of Association Resources, Bulletins II-XIII, 1930-32

Box 478: folder 1
Suggestions for Self-Study and Suggestions for Self-Study in the Present Emergency (Lab Division), 1933

Box 478: folder 2
A Symposium on Unemployment (for Convention 1930), 1930

Box 478: folder 3
"Unemployment: For Leaders of Discussion Groups, A Study Outline" (aka "The Outline"), Jan 1929

Box 478: folder 4
Unemployment's Humpty Dumpty: A Study Course in Three Lessons for the Busy Woman, 1932

Box 478: folder 5
Transient and Homeless

General, 1933-41

Box 478: folder 6
Local Associations report, 1933

Box 478: folder 7
National Committee on Care of Transient and Homeless, 1932-38, n.d.

Box 478: folder 8
Report on housing for indigent and unattached women, circa 1937

Box 478: folder 9
Resource materials, 1931-38, n.d.

Box 478: folder 10
Business and Professional Women

General and History

General, 1919-84, n.d.

Box 479: folder 1-3
Aims and purpose, 1924-31, n.d.

Box 479: folder 4

Biennial, 1928-29, 1937-39, 1940-44

Box 479: folder 5
Secretary, 1918-20

Box 479: folder 6
Secretary's job analysis, 1925-31, n.d.

Box 479: folder 7
Staff meeting minutes, 1944-47

Box 479: folder 8

B and P Women's Committee: minutes, 1919-20

Box 479: folder 9
National B and P Committee: minutes, 1925

Box 479: folder 10
Department Committee: minutes, 1927-29

Box 479: folder 11
National B and P Committee/Subcommittee: minutes, 1937-50

Box 479: folder 12-15

General, 1918-46

Box 479: folder 16

Asilomar, 1930-36

Box 479: folder 17-18
Camp Gray, 1926-31

Box 479: folder 19-22
East Central Area, Forest Beach Camp, 1940-44, 1946-50

Box 480: folder 1-11
Eastern Region (Maqua and 'Kiski' Areas)

Maqua, 1929

Box 480: folder 12
Summit Lake Camp, 1932-33, 1935

Box 480: folder 13-15
Wells College


Box 480: folder 16-18
1939, 1941

Box 481: folder 1-2
Mt. Hermon School, 1940

Box 481: folder 3
Wellesley College, 1942

Box 481: folder 4
Estes Park (Colorado), 1928-29

Box 481: folder 5
Forest Beach Camp, 1933-38

Box 481: folder 6-9
Great Lakes Region Leadership Conference, Mary Eells Camp, 1932

Box 481: folder 10
Kiski Business Girls, Kiskiminetas Springs School, 1928-31

Box 481: folder 11
Southern Business Girls/Southern Area Business and Professional

Blue Ridge, North Carolina, 1929-30

Box 481: folder 12-13
Camp Nakanawa, Tennessee, 1931-34

Box 481: folder 14-17
Camp Chelan, Indiana, 1935-36

Box 481: folder 18-19
Camp Merrie-Woode, N. Carolina


Box 481: folder 20-23

Box 482: folder 1-3
Camp Highland Lake, N. Carolina, 1944, 1946

Box 482: folder 4-5
Camp Chelan, Indiana, 1947, 1949

Box 482: folder 6-7
Gay Valley Camp, North Carolina, 1950

Box 482: folder 8
Southwest Area, Camp Mirror Lake, 1939-42

Box 482: folder 9-12
Southwest Leadership, Glen Rose, Texas, 1936-37

Box 482: folder 13-14
Weekend (fall, mid-winter, mid-year)

Arizona, New Mexico, and West Texas, 1946

Box 482: folder 15
Arkansas and Monroe, Louisiana, 1935-40, 1948

Box 482: folder 16
California, northern, 1937-45

Box 482: folder 17
California, southern, 1939-40

Box 482: folder 18
Carolinas, 1935-46

Box 482: folder 19-20
Colorado-Wyoming, 1926, 1937-45

Box 482: folder 21
Florida, 1935-40

Box 482: folder 22
Illinois, southern, 1936-38, 1946

Box 482: folder 23-24
Indiana, northern, 1935, 1940

Box 483: folder 1
Indiana, southern, 1936-38

Box 483: folder 2
Inland Empire (Idaho, Utah, Washington), 1938-40, 1947

Box 483: folder 3
Kansas and Missouri, 1935-43

Box 483: folder 4-5
Kentucky-Tennessee, 1935-40

Box 483: folder 6
Michigan, 1938-44

Box 483: folder 7
Middle Atlantic, 1935-40, 1949

Box 483: folder 8-9
New England, northern, 1930-41

Box 483: folder 10-12
New England, southern, 1935-46

Box 483: folder 13
New Jersey, 1936-46

Box 483: folder 14-15
New York, eastern, 1935-39

Box 483: folder 16
New York, western, 1936-40, 1950

Box 483: folder 17
Ohio, northern, 1936-48

Box 483: folder 18-19
Ohio, southern, 1934-46

Box 483: folder 20
Oklahoma, 1936-40

Box 484: folder 1-2
Pennsylvania, western, 1938

Box 484: folder 3
Texas-Shreveport, 1935-41, 1944-45

Box 484: folder 4-8
Tri-state Area (Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi), 1935-47

Box 484: folder 9
Tri-state Area (Minnesota, N. and S. Dakota), 1937-40

Box 484: folder 10-12
Tri-state Area (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia), 1937

Box 484: folder 13
Virginia, 1935-37

Box 484: folder 14
West Virginia, 1937-39

Box 484: folder 15
Wisconsin and Northern Illinois, 1936-45

Box 484: folder 16

Handbooks, c. 1942, 1946

Box 484: folder 17
National Council

General, 1922-48

Box 484: folder 18
Financial, 1926-30, 1940-50

Box 484: folder 19


Box 484: folder 20

Box 485: folder 1-4
Questionnaire to locals re role and function of Council, fall 1947

Box 485: folder 5
Area/Regional Councils

Central, 1932-45

Box 485: folder 6
East Central (eastern part of Central Area-aka Forest Beach), 1938-50

Box 485: folder 7-8
East Central (central part of Eastern Area), 1939-46

Box 485: folder 9

General, 1926-39

Box 485: folder 10
Minutes, 1938-50

Box 485: folder 11-12

General, 1938-47, n.d.

Box 485: folder 13

General, 1940-47

Box 485: folder 13


Box 485: folder 13

Box 486: folder 1

General, 1939-42

Box 486: folder 2
Minutes, 1939-49

Box 486: folder 3-4
West Central: minutes, 1942-50

Box 486: folder 5-6

General, 1939-43

Box 486: folder 7
Nation-wide/World-wide Observance, 1933-34, 1939, 1942-49

Box 486: folder 8-17
National Assembly

General, 1930-44

Box 486: folder 18

General, 1925-32

Box 486: folder 19
1929-31: Vocational Adjustment

Box 486: folder 20

Clerical Organization

Box 486: folder 21

Box 487: folder 1
Increased Development of Spiritual Resources

Box 487: folder 2
Increased Participation in the Association

Box 487: folder 3
Increased Skill in Citizenship

Box 487: folder 4
Progression of the Individual Girl

Box 487: folder 5


Box 487: folder 6
Cooperative Movements

Box 487: folder 7
Freedom of Speech

Box 487: folder 8
Minority Groups

Box 487: folder 9
Participation and Freedom of Action

Box 487: folder 10

Box 487: folder 11
Workers' Education

Box 487: folder 12
Youth Movement

Box 487: folder 13
1938-40: Economic Security

Box 487: folder 14

Box 487: folder 15

Jewish Welfare Board/Young Women's Hebrew Association/YWCA: business girls discussion group, 1927-28

Box 487: folder 16
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs

General and history, 1919-41, n.d.

Box 487: folder 17
Constitution and by-laws, 1919, n.d.

Box 487: folder 18

Conference of Business and Professional Women with the National Board, May 1918

Box 487: folder 19
B and P Women's Conference of the Northeast and East Central Fields of the YWCA, May 1919

Box 487: folder 20
National Business Women's Committee, 1918-19

Box 487: folder 21

First, St. Louis, Jul 1919


Box 487: folder 22

Box 488: folder 1

Box 488: folder 2-7
Second, St. Paul, Jul 1920

Box 488: folder 8
Directory, 1920-21

Box 488: folder 9
Project: Business Office Culture

Proposal to U.S. Dept of Labor and progress report, 1968

Box 488: folder 10
Final report, Sep 1969

Box 488: folder 11

General, 1921-44, n.d.

Box 488: folder 12
As Told By Business Girls: Problems in Personal Adjustment by Margaret S. Quayle, TWP, 1932

Box 488: folder 13
The Business Girl Looks at the Negro World by Frances Harriet Williams, TWP 1937

Box 488: folder 14
Business and Professional Committee, 1935-40

Box 489: folder 1
Clerical workers, 1928-38

Box 489: folder 2
Dos and Don'ts for Business Women by Jean Rich (Helen Frances Thompson), TWP 1922

Box 489: folder 3
Jobs and Marriage? by Grace Coyle, TWP 1928

Box 489: folder 4
Program, 1919-36

Box 489: folder 5
Religion, 1920-42

Box 489: folder 6-7
The Ways of a Business Woman by Marion Lela Norris, 1924

Box 489: folder 8

Exchange Sheet. . .

Feb 1923-1924

Box 489: folder 9-10
1925-Jun 1928

Box 490: folder 1-5
Program Exchange

Jan 1933-1935

Box 490: folder 6-11
1936-Mar 1939

Box 491: folder 1-8
The Business and Professional News and Notes

Sep 1939-Feb 1941

Box 491: folder 9-11
May 1941-Jul 1944

Box 492: folder 1-8

"From Pay Day to Pay Day" A study conducted during 1931-32 by Elsie D. Harper, 1934

Box 492: folder 9
"Leisure-Time Interests and Activities of Business Girls," a research study conducted during 1931-33 by Janet Fowler Nelson

Box 492: folder 10
Household Employment

General and History

General, 1870-46, n.d.

Box 493: folder 1-4
Bibliographies, 1930-39, n.d.

Box 493: folder 5
Employment Standards, 1930-40, n.d.

Box 493: folder 6
Legislation, 1932-40, n.d.

Box 493: folder 7-8
"Negro," 1923-36

Box 493: folder 9
Placement, 1928-39

Box 493: folder 10
Unionization, 1933-38, n.d.

Box 493: folder 11
Voluntary Employer-Employee Agreement, 1930-39, n.d.

Box 493: folder 12

Commission on Household Employment: reports, 1915-ca. 1917, n.d.

Box 493: folder 13
Industrial Committee: reports by E. Beatrice Stearns, Special Worker for Household Employment, 1919-20

Box 493: folder 14
Sub-Committee on Household Employment of the Public Affairs Committee

General, 1930-38

Box 493: folder 15
Symposium co-sponsored with the Federal Council of Churches, "Fair and Clear in the Home," 1936-39

Box 493: folder 16-17
Sub-Committee on Household Employment of the Lab Division/Community Division, 1939-41

Box 494: folder 1
Ad-hoc Committee on Household Employment, 1945

Box 494: folder 2
Local associations files by state, 1932-40, n.d.

A - New Jersey

Box 494: folder 3-23
New York - Wisconsin

Box 495: folder 1-16
National Industrial Assembly and Industrial Conferences

General, 1926-38

Box 495: folder 17-18
Household Employment Project, 1931-41

Box 495: folder 19-20

National Committee on Employer-Employee Relationships in the Home, 1928-33, n.d.

Box 496: folder 1-2
National Committee/Council on Household Employment, 1934-36

Box 496: folder 3

General, 1940-41, n.d.

Box 496: folder 4
Concerns of Household Workers: Program with Household Workers in the YWCA by Jean Collier Brown, 1941

Box 496: folder 5
Reference materials

General, 1911-40

Box 497: folder 1

General, 1925-39

Box 497: folder 2
World's YWCA, 1930-38

Box 497: folder 3
Training Programs, 1934-40, n.d.

Box 497: folder 4
Industrial Work

General and History

General, 1908-80, n.d.

Box 498: folder 1-2
Thesis: "A Study of One Hundred Employed Girls and Women In Selected Factories on the North Side: Personal Data, Job Experience and Use of Free Time; Its Implications for Recruitment and Program" by Wilma Stringfellow, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, 1949

Box 498: folder 3

General, 1906-49

Box 498: folder 4
YWCA relations with employers, 1920-25

Box 498: folder 5
Creeds, 1921-25, n.d.

Box 498: folder 6
Federation of Industrial and Extension Clubs, 1912-ca. 1919, n.d.

Box 498: folder 7
Local Clubs/Committees

General, 1910-45, n.d.

Box 498: folder 8
Illinois, Chicago, 1934

Box 498: folder 9
Indiana, Indianapolis, 1933

Box 498: folder 10
Massachusetts, Lawrence, 1943-44

Box 498: folder 11
New York, Buffalo

General, 1924-48, n.d.

Box 498: folder 12
Industrial Department notebook, ca. 1948

Box 498: folder 13
"A Study of Backgrounds of Industrial Women of Buffalo" by Eleanor Coit, 1923

Box 498: folder 14
"Some Salient Facts Concerning Business and Industrial Girls of South Buffalo," 1924

Box 498: folder 15
Pennsylvania: Manual for Counsellors of Industrial Groups, YWCA Council of Southwestern Pennsylvania, n.d.

Box 499: folder 1
Mill Villages work/Southern Cotton Mills

General, 1907-33, n.d.

Box 499: folder 2
Monaghan Mills YWCA, Greenville, South Carolina, 1906-10

[see also oversize scrapbook in Record Group 2]

Box 499: folder 3
Victor Manufacturing Company YWCA, Greer, South Carolina, 1908-09

Box 499: folder 4

General, 1908-80, n.d.

Box 499: folder 5
Clippings, 1920-21

Box 499: folder 6
Industrial Legislation, 1915-33, n.d.

Box 499: folder 7
Reference materials, 1910-39, n.d.

Box 499: folder 8-9
Secretaries Job Analysis, 1919-30

Box 499: folder 10
"Southern situation," 1925-31

Box 499: folder 11-14
Staff meetings, 1944-46

Box 500: folder 1-3
Strikes, Paterson and Passaic, 1919, 1926-27

Box 500: folder 4
Workers' Education, 1925-40, n.d.

Box 500: folder 5
World War II, 1939-44

Box 500: folder 6

General, 1929-31

Box 500: folder 7
Industrial Sub-Committee of the City Committee: minutes, 1914-16

Box 500: folder 8
Industrial Committee: minutes


Box 500: folder 9-22

Box 501: folder 1-2
Industrial Sub-Committee (Leadership Division/Community YWCAs Division)

Minutes, 1935-49

Box 501: folder 3-7
Hearing: Women workers and war production, Apr 1942

Box 501: folder 8
National Industrial Research/Inquiry Commission

General, 1924-28

Box 501: folder 9
Correspondence course on research methods, 1927

Box 501: folder 10
World Fellowship and Industry, 1925-30

Box 501: folder 11

General, 1928-30, n.d.

Box 501: folder 12


Box 501: folder 13-14
For Staff Working with Industrial Constituency, 1947

General, 1946-47

Box 501: folder 15
Reference materials, 1946-47

Box 501: folder 16


Box 501: folder 17

Box 502: folder 1-3

General, 1920-48, n.d.

Box 502: folder 4
Altamont (NY and NJ), 1921-22

Box 502: folder 5-6
Central Area/Region

Dewey Lake, 1922, 1924

Box 502: folder 7-8
Forest Beach, 1923

Box 502: folder 9
Winona Lake, 1923

Box 502: folder 10
Camp Okoboji (Milford, IA), 1923-24, 1927

Box 502: folder 11-13
Camp Gray (Saugatuck, MI), 1928-37

Box 502: folder 14-23
Tower Hill Camp (Sawyer, MI)


Box 502: folder 24-27

Box 503: folder 1
East Central Area/Region (central part of eastern region)

Nepahwin (Canton, PA), 1922-25

Box 503: folder 2-5
Camp Caledon (PA), 1926

Box 503: folder 6
Camp Pawatinika (Annapolis, MD), 1927

Box 503: folder 7
Doubling Gap, PA, 1928

Box 503: folder 8
Camp Whelen (High Point, NJ), 1929-30

Box 503: folder 9-10
East Central Area/Region (central part of eastern region)

Forest Beach Camp (New Buffalo, MI), 1943-44, 1946-50

Box 503: folder 11-17
Eastern Area/Region

Silver Bay (Lake George, NY), 1919

Box 503: folder 18
Makonikey (MA), 1920

Box 503: folder 19
Prospect (Central Valley, NY), 1925-27

Box 503: folder 20-21
Summit Lake (Central Valley, NY)

1924, 1928-33

Box 503: folder 22-28

Box 504: folder 1-9
Southern Area/Region

Blue Ridge, 1918

Box 504: folder 10
French Broad Camp, 1921

Box 504: folder 11
Lake Junaluska (NC), 1922-23, 1926

Box 504: folder 12-14
Camp Greystone (Tuxedo, NC), 1927-28

Box 504: folder 15-16
Camp Merrie-Woode (Sapphire, NC)


Box 505: folder 1-13

Box 506: folder 1-2
Camp Highland Lake (Hendersonville, NC), 1946-47

Box 506: folder 3
Lincoln Academy (Kings Mountain, NC), 1947

Box 506: folder 4
Camp Chelan (Sellersburg, IA), 1949-50

Box 506: folder 5-6

General, 1933-46

Box 506: folder 7
Miscellaneous, 1920-46,

Box 506: folder 8
California, 1936-40

Box 506: folder 9
East Central (Nepawhin Area), 1925-46

Box 506: folder 10
New England, northern, 1927-50

Box 506: folder 11
New England, southern, 1927-42

Box 506: folder 12
New York and New Jersey, 1927-41

Box 506: folder 13
New York, up-state, 1928-50, n.d.

Box 506: folder 14
North Carolina,1939-43

Box 506: folder 15
Northeast, 1922-32

Box 506: folder 16
Pennsylvania, eastern, 1929-42

Box 506: folder 17
Pennsylvania, western, 1928-40

Box 506: folder 18
Tri-City/Tri-State (Baltimore, MD, Washington, DC, Richmond, VA), 1936, 1940

Box 506: folder 19
West Virginia, 1929, 1939

Box 506: folder 20

General, 1908-1936

Box 507: folder 1
Handbook, 1942

Box 507: folder 2
Rosters, 1931-49

Box 507: folder 3
Rules of procedure, 1941-49

Box 507: folder 4

General, 1930-50

Box 507: folder 5
Financial, 1938-49

Box 507: folder 6
Meetings, 1931-49

Box 507: folder 7-9
"National Council News," 1938-40

Box 507: folder 10-12
"National Industrial Council News," 1941-47

Box 507: folder 13-15
Area/Regional Councils

General, 1919, 1934

Box 507
Albert Lea (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, N. and S. Dakota), 1915

Box 507
Camp Gray (Saugatuck, MI), 1928-39

Box 507
Central (Dewey Lake), 1916-21, 1939-42

Box 508: folder 1-4
East Central (central portion of eastern region), 1935-36

Box 508: folder 5
East Central (eastern portion of central region), 1942-49

Box 508: folder 6
Eastern (Camp Nepawhin), 1915-21, 1928-30, 1932-36, 1939-48

Box 508: folder 7-13
Northeastern (Altamont/Makonikey), 1915-20

Box 508: folder 14-16
South Atlantic, 1920-21

Box 508: folder 17
South Atlantic and South Central, 1919

Box 508: folder 18
Southern, 1929-49

Box 508: folder 19-21
Storm Lake (Iowa), 1916-17

Box 508: folder 22
West Central (Okoboji), 1924-50

Box 508: folder 23
National Assembly

General, 1924-49

Box 508: folder 24
Record book

1926 (1 of 4)

Box 508: folder 25
(2-4 of 4) 1926, 1928

Box 509: folder 1-7
Resolutions, 1936

Box 509: folder 8
Post-Assembly Bulletin, 1938, 1940

Box 509: folder 9-10
Programs and Projects

General, 1912-46, n.d.

Box 509: folder 11
Consultation on Women Workers in Industry and Service Trades: report, 1956

Box 509: folder 12
East Tennessee Project (extension of work in), 1929, n.d.

Box 509: folder 13
Florence Simms Memorial Scholarship Fund, 1924-41, n.d.

Box 509: folder 14
Industrial Women's Service Centers/Clubs, 1920-27, n.d.

Box 509: folder 15
National Industrial Progress Day

[see also oversize-scrapbook, 1945]


Box 509: folder 16

Box 510: folder 1-8
Pageantry and drama, 1931, 1949, n.d.

Box 510: folder 9
Recreation, 1946, n.d.

Box 510: folder 10
Textile Industry Writing Groups, 1931-32

Box 510: folder 11
U-Day (Union Day), 1945-50

Box 510: folder 12
Victory Program, 1942-44

Box 510: folder 13

History, 1920, 1928

Box 510: folder 14


Box 510: folder 15-16

Box 511: folder 1
Industrial Committee, 1916-42

Box 511: folder 2
Department of Industrial Work Leaflets : No. 1. How to Begin-Organization; No. 2. The Industrial Club and Its Program; No. 3. The Federation-An Industrial Movement, by Ernestine Friedmann1918-21

Box 511: folder 3
Industrial Work in the Young Women's Christian Association: 1. Principles and Policy and II. Program and Method, 1930

Box 511: folder 4
Program materials, 1920-27

Box 511: folder 5
Women in Industry in the Orient: A Source Book, 1926

Box 511: folder 6
Bulletin to Industrial Secretaries of the YWCA


Box 511: folder 7-11

Box 512: folder 1
[Industrial] Program Exchange

Index to 1935-36 issues

Box 512: folder 2

Box 512: folder 3-12

Box 513: folder 1-7

Miscellaneous, 1915-46, n.d.

Box 513: folder 8

1913-14, 1915-20, 1924-25, 1926-27

Box 513: folder 9-11
1928-29, 1930-31, 1935-37, 1937-40, 1939-44

Box 514: folder 1-3
Case Studies in Local Industrial Work from reports sent to the National Industrial Department, 1929-30

Box 514: folder 4-5

List, 1924, 1925, 1929

Box 514: folder 6
Carner, Lucy P., 1924-31

Box 514: folder 7-10
Coit, Eleanor G., 1926-28

Box 514: folder 11-12
Copenhaver, Eleanor


Box 514: folder 13-14

Box 515: folder 1-4
Coyle, Grace, 1922-25

Box 515: folder 5-6
Dieckmann, Annetta, 1922-28

Box 515: folder 7-8
Duntze, Wilma, 1929-31

Box 515: folder 9
Friedmann, Ernestine L., 1918-19

Box 515: folder 10
Gifford, Helen W., 1929-36

Box 515: folder 11
Grumman, Anne Sophia, 1919-20

Box 515: folder 12
Harper, Elsie D., 1929-30

Box 515: folder 13
Hubbard, Dorothy L., 1928-31

Box 515: folder 14-15
Ireland, Imogene B., 1920-21

Box 515: folder 16
Jackson, Mary E., 1918-21

Box 515: folder 17
Johnston, Alma E., 1926-27

Box 515: folder 18
Leonard, Louise, 1922-27

Box 516: folder 1-2
Nims, Mrs., 1931

Box 516: folder 3
Owers, Anna, 1921

Box 516: folder 4
Perry, Mary B., 1927-31

Box 516: folder 5-6
Simms, Florence, 1916-21

Box 516: folder 7
Stearns, E. Beatrice, 1920

Box 516: folder 8
Van Horn, Olive, 1921

Box 516: folder 9
Wood, Margaret Wells, 1918, n.d.

Box 516: folder 10
Wood, Mildred L., 1930

Box 516: folder 11

Industrial Surveys by Jeannette White, 1920

Box 516: folder 12
Digest of replies to letters sent out to Associations in Industrial towns, Feb 1929

Box 516: folder 13
"The Industrial Work of the YWCA"

Committee minutes and correspondence, 1935-37

Box 516: folder 14
Instructions and blank forms, Oct 1935

Box 516: folder 15
Preliminary report by Annabel Stewart, 1937

Box 516: folder 16-20
Final report by Annabel Stewart, 1937

Box 516: folder 21
"Report relating to the local industrial program of the YWCA," 1937

Box 517: folder 1
"Tentative Conclusions and Recommendations," Jan 1937

Box 517: folder 2
"Conclusions and Recommendations," Apr 1938

Box 517: folder 3
Follow up, 1937-40, n.d.

Box 517: folder 4-6
International Wage and Budget Study, 1929

Box 517: folder 7
"Married Women in Industry," questionnaire, 1926, 1929

Box 517: folder 8-9
Practical Applications of Workers' Education, by Ethel M. Smith, 1927

Box 517: folder 10
Training Courses

Miscellaneous, 1918-27

Box 517: folder 11
"Administration of the Industrial Extension Department," 1918

Box 517: folder 12
"The Christian Woman in Industry," 1919

Box 517: folder 13
"Christianity and Industry," 1919

Box 517: folder 14
"The Evolution of the Industrial Program of the YWCA," 1927

Box 517: folder 15
"Group Behavior," n.d.

Box 517: folder 16
"Group Work," 1928

Box 517: folder 17
"Industrial Technique," ca. 1918-27

Box 517: folder 18
"Industrial Problems," 1923, 1927

Box 517: folder 19
Summer Session, 1926-27

Box 517: folder 20-21
Oversize box

National Industrial Council Financial Ledger: receipts and expenditures of Industrial Clubs, 1947-49

Box 518
National Industrial Progress Day scrapbook, 1945

Box 518
Subseries B. Immigration and Foreign Communities

General and history

General, 1911-93, n.d.

Box 519: folder 1-2
Brochures and pamphlets, 1913-31, n.d.

Box 519: folder 3
"Foreign Community and Immigration Work of the National Young Women's Christian Association" by Edith Terry Bremer, 1916

Box 519: folder 4
Department, Commissions, and Committees


Special Committee of Research and Investigation (into the moral, physical, intellectual, and spiritual conditions of immigrant women): minutes and reports, 1910-11

Box 519: folder 5
Committee on Immigration and Foreign Community Work/Immigration Sub-Committee, 1915-17

[see also War Work Council, Foreign-Born Women for Jul 1917-Mar 1920 in Series VII]

Box 519: folder 6
Committee on Foreign Born Women/Department of Work with Foreign-Born Women, May 1920-May 1924

Box 519: folder 7-8
Immigration and Foreign Communities Department,, Oct 1924-30

Box 519: folder 9-11
Staff meetings, 1926-31

Box 519: folder 12-13
Commission on the Second Generation Girl/First Generation Americans (aka Commission II)

General, 1926-30, n.d.

Box 519: folder 14
Case studies, n.d.

Box 519: folder 15-16
Correspondence and memoranda, 1927-31

Box 519: folder 17
Minutes, 1927-31

Box 519: folder 18

General, 1925-26, n.d.

Box 519: folder 19
Schedule on Family Relationships in Certain Nationality Groups, 1929, n.d.

Box 520: folder 1

Second Generation Study, Buffalo YWCA: minutes and reports, 1932-33

Box 520: folder 2
Subcommittee on Second Generation Girls to the Planning Committee of the Brooklyn YWCA, 1936

Box 520: folder 3
"Second Generation Youth: A discussion of American-Born Children of Foreign Parentage" by Florence G. Cassidy, TWP, 1930

Box 520: folder 4
"What it Means to Be a Second-Generation Girl: Talks given at the Second-Generation Youth Dinner of the YWCA," TWP 1935

Box 520: folder 5

General, 1911-49

Box 520: folder 6
"Program Letters," (correspondence re program), 1929-42

Box 520: folder 7
Establishment of the National Institute of Immigrant Welfare and transition period in Department

General, 1931-48, n.d.

Box 520: folder 8-12
Committee on the Place and Future of the International Institutes, 1930

Box 520: folder 13
Sub-Committee on Analysis of Replies from Local Associations in Regard to the Creation of a New National Agency for the Advancement of the Foreign-Born: report, 1933

Box 520: folder 14
[Staff] Advisory Committee on Nationality Community Interests, 1935-36

Box 520: folder 15
Committee on Nationality Community Interests, 1936-39

Box 520: folder 16
Forms for statistical reports, 1936-42

Box 520: folder 17
International Institutes


General, 1911-33, n.d.

Box 520: folder 18
Paper: "Americanization Through Cultural Pluralism: The International Institute Movement" by Raymond A. Mohl, AHA Meeting, 1977

Box 520: folder 19
Thesis: "The International Institutes of the Young Women's Christian Association and Immigrant Women" by Julia Talbot Bird, Yale University, 1932

Box 521: folder 1
Membership basis, 1923-40, n.d.

Box 521: folder 2
Personnel, 1922-43, n.d.

Box 521: folder 3
Philosophy of International Institutes, 1932-39, n.d.

Box 521: folder 4
Questionnaire re nationality leadership, 1936

Box 521: folder 5
Report: "Adult Education in International Institutes" by Florence G. Cassidy, 1933-34

Box 521: folder 6
Member autobiographies, 1931, n.d.

Box 521: folder 7
Vocational Guidance Bureau

General, 1920-33, n.d.

Box 521: folder 8
Minutes, 1922, n.d.

Box 521: folder 9
Case files

Frank, Rosalia, and Julia Morinyi, 1925-26

Box 521: folder 10
Winifred and Malachy Murphy, 1924-31

Box 521: folder 11
Luise Wyneken, 1924-31, n.d.

Box 521: folder 12
German Immigration, general correspondence, 1921-30, n.d.

Box 521: folder 13
Advisory Committee for Educated German Women

General, 1923-24

Box 521: folder 14
Case files, 1924

Box 521: folder 15
Russian refugees, 1923

Box 521: folder 16

Immigration and Foreign Communities, Pittsburgh, PA, 1917

Box 521: folder 17
Annual/National Conference of International Institutes

General, 1934

Box 521: folder 18
[5th?] Washington, DC, 1923

Box 521: folder 19
6th, New York City, 1924

Box 521: folder 20
7th, Niagara Falls and Denver, 1925

Box 521: folder 21
8th, Milwaukee, 1926

Box 522: folder 1
9th, Des Moines, 1927

Box 522: folder 2-3
10th, Pocono Manor, PA, 1928

Box 522: folder 4-6
11th, Detroit, 1930

Box 522: folder 7-9
12th, Philadelphia, 1932

Box 522: folder 10-11
Interim National Conference of International Institutes, Detroit, 1933

Box 522: folder 12
13th, Philadelphia?, 1934

Box 522: folder 13
Montreal, 1935

Box 522: folder 14
Indianapolis, 1937

Box 522: folder 15
Annual meeting, Seattle, 1938

Box 522: folder 16
Buffalo, 1939

Box 522: folder 17
National Institute Conference of International Institutes, Local Councils, and Leagues for the Foreign Born

Grand Rapids, 1940

Box 522: folder 18
New Orleans and Minneapolis, 1942

Box 523: folder 1
Cleveland, 1943

Box 523: folder 2
Pre-Convention Conference/Meeting of Foreign Community Departments and International Institutes of the YWCA

Columbus, OH, 1938

Box 523: folder 3
Atlantic City, NJ, 1940

Box 523: folder 4
NIIW and YWCA Eastern Region Joint Conference of International Institutes and Foreign Community Departments, Jul 1942

Box 523: folder 5
Nationality Community Departments and International Institute Centers of the YWCA, 1943

Box 523: folder 6
International Institutes and Foreign Community Departments, Feb 1945

Box 523: folder 7

General, 1932-43, n.d.

Box 523: folder 8
American Civil Liberties Union, Committee on Aliens Civil Rights, 1941-42

Box 523: folder 9
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 1940-43

Box 523: folder 10
Citizens Committee to Repeal Chinese Exclusion, 1943

Box 523: folder 11
Committee for the Study of Recent Emigration from Europe, 1944-45, n.d.

Box 523: folder 12
National Citizenship Education Program of the WPA, 1942

Box 523: folder 13
National Council on Naturalization and Citizenship

General, 1942-43, n.d.

Box 523: folder 14
Conference papers, 1939-44

Box 523: folder 15
National Institute of Immigrant Welfare/American Federation of International Institutes

General, 1934-49, n.d.

Box 523: folder 16-17
By-laws, 1934-47

Box 523: folder 18
YWCA - NIIW Liaison Committee, 1934-47

Box 523: folder 19
Award to Distinguished Citizens of Foreign Birth, 1936-39

Box 524: folder 1
Committee on the Study of Three Generations of Women, 1938-39

Box 524: folder 2
Conference papers series, nos. 9-10, 1938-39

Box 524: folder 3
Conventions, 1942-48

Box 524: folder 4

Bulletins and Executive's Letter, 1934-41

Box 524: folder 5
National Institute News and National Office News, 1935-38, 1944

Box 524: folder 6
Study on the Status-Effectiveness of Program of International Institutes Formerly Part of the YWCA, 1940

Box 524: folder 7

General, 1916-22, 1945, n.d.

Box 524: folder 8-9
Backgrounds and Foregrounds in the National Public Affairs Program for the Foreign Born, 1938

Box 524: folder 10
Department of Immigration and Foreign Communities National Office News Letter and News Packet, 1928-32

Box 524: folder 11-13
Department of Immigration and Foreign Communities Technical Bulletins, no. I-IV, VI, VIII, X-XV, 1924-30

Box 524: folder 14-15
Department of Immigration and Foreign Communities Bulletins, nos. XVI-XVIII (1930); XX, XXI, XXIII (1931); XXIV-XXIX, 1932

Box 524: folder 16-18
English-Class Plays for New Americans by Emily Gibson, TWP, 1927

Box 525: folder 1
Folk Festivals and the Foreign Community by Dorothy Gladys Spicer, TWP 1923

Box 525: folder 2
Foreign Born, 1919-22

'Abbreviated' index

Box 525: folder 3
Bound copies

Box 525: folder 4-5
Handbook on Racial and Nationality Backgrounds

Section I, Peoples of the Near East, 1922

Box 526: folder 1
Section II, Southern and Central Europeans, 1922

Box 526: folder 2
Section III, Slavic Peoples, 1922

Box 526: folder 3
Section IV, The Far East, 1923

Box 526: folder 4
Section V, Spanish-Speaking Peoples, French-Canadians, 1923

Box 526: folder 5
Section VI, Peoples of the Scandinavian and Baltic States, 1923

Box 526: folder 6
International Institute cook book, circa 1930

Box 526: folder 7
International Institute News Packet, 1933-34

Box 526: folder 8
International Translation and Service Bureau publications, 1918-20

Box 526: folder 9
National Costumes of Slavic Peoples, The Womans Press, 1920

Box 526: folder 10
Quarterly Bulletin for International Institutes, Foreign Communities Departments and Others Working with Women and Girls of Foreign Background, Laboratory Division, vol. 1, no. 1-3, 6-7, 11-12, 1935-38

Box 526: folder 11
Wednesdays by Annie B. Kerr, TWP 1930

Box 526: folder 12
"The World in Brooklyn" by Annie B. Kerr, TWP 1933

Box 526: folder 13
Reference files

General, 1920-50, n.d.

Box 526: folder 14
Bibliographies, 1919-32, n.d.

Box 526: folder 15
"Background information" by country, n.d.

Armenia - Hungary

Box 526: folder 16
Italy - Ukraine

Box 527: folder 1-2
Displaced persons

General, 1949-50

Box 527: folder 3
World's YWCA reports, 1945-48

Box 527: folder 4
Folk festivals and folk materials, 1927-42, n.d.

Box 527: folder 5
Legislation, 1935-51

Box 527: folder 6
Mother tongue, 1914-38

Box 527: folder 7
Program materials/suggestions, 1926-38, n.d.

Box 527: folder 8
Race and nationality, 1933-43

Box 527: folder 9

Department annual and biennial, 1920-21, 1926-29, 1931-32, 1936-39

Box 527: folder 10-15
Commission on Selection and Training of International Institute Workers, 1927, n.d.

Box 527: folder 16
[Special] Committee of Research and Investigation, "Some Urgent Phases of Immigrant Life," 1910

Box 527: folder 17
International Institutes, 1928-39, n.d.

Box 527: folder 18
Miscellaneous, 1915-42, n.d.

Box 528: folder 1

Bird, Ethel, 1930, 1935

Box 528: folder 2
Bremer, Edith Terry, 1910-17

Box 528: folder 3-5
Currie, Adelaide, 1915-16

Box 528: folder 6
Ellis, Mabel (displaced persons), 1948

Box 528: folder 7
Hendee, Elizabeth Russell, 1921-31

Box 528: folder 8

New York and New Jersey, 1940-42

Box 528: folder 9
North Central Field (Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, Indiana), 1914-42, n.d.

Box 528: folder 10
Northeastern Field (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island), 1913-42

Box 528: folder 11
Ohio and West Virginia, 1918-42

Box 528: folder 12
Pennsylvania, 1931-41

Box 528: folder 13
San Antonio, Texas, 1935-42

Box 528: folder 14
Studies/Study Group

General, 1928, n.d.

Box 528: folder 15
Adult Immigrant Education by Dema M. Chayer, 1928-29

Box 528: folder 16
The Family of the Foreign Born Under Restrictive Immigration: A Study of 100 Separated Families from the Records of International Institutes, compiled by A. Yeghenian, 1927

Box 528: folder 17
Separated Families and the Immigration Law by Ethel Bird, 1926, n.d.

Box 528: folder 18
Study Group for persons working with girls of Italian background and experimental programs led by Rosina Martella, 1935-36, n.d.

Box 528: folder 19

General, 1918-35

Box 528: folder 20
Foreign Community Workers Training

General, 1919-33, n.d.

Box 528: folder 21
Course notes and syllabi, 1922-26, n.d.

Box 528: folder 22
Fletcher Farm Summer School for Nationality Workers, 1929-32

Box 528: folder 23-26
Miscellaneous, 1919-33, n.d.

Box 528: folder 27

Foreign Born unbound preservation copies DO NOT USE

Box 529: folder 1-4
Subseries C. Interracial/Racial Justice

American Indian Work, 1892-1964

General and history, 1917-62, 1983, n.d.

Box 530: folder 1

Constitutions of YWCAs in Indian schools, 1892-1922

Box 530: folder 2
The Indian School Journal, Chilocco, Oklahoma, Oct-Nov 1943, and The Indian Leader, Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas, Oct-Nov 1943

Box 530: folder 3
Gallup Indian Project, 1961-64

Box 530: folder 3A
Correspondence and memoranda, 1934-49

Box 530: folder 4-5
Program materials

for use by Indians, 1928-40, n.d.

Box 530: folder 6
about Indians, 1929-36

Box 530: folder 7
Public Affairs, 1940-44

Box 530: folder 8

Pamphlets, 1920s-32

Box 530: folder 9
American Indians and Their Music by Frances Densmore, The Womans Press, 1936

Box 530: folder 10
Beyond the Camp Fire by Edith Manville Dabb, National Board of YWCA, 1916

Box 530: folder 11
Handbook on the American Indian and His Art by Ruth Perkins, The Womans Press, 1934

Box 530: folder 12
The Little Book of Weeks by Bertha Eckert, 1919

Box 530: folder 13
Women of Trail and Wigwam by Flora Warren Seymour, The Womans Press, 1930

Box 530: folder 14
YWCA [Indian School] Bulletin, 1925, 1932-33

Box 530: folder 15
Reference materials, 1928-48

Box 530: folder 16

General, 1913-41

Box 531: folder 1
"American Indian Work" by Bertha Eckert, August 1943

Box 531: folder 2
Wardship, 1933-43

Box 531: folder 3
"Colored" and "Interracial" Work, 1906-70

General and History

Box 531
General, 1897-1969, n.d.

Box 532: folder 1-2
"History of Colored Work" chronological excerpts from reports of secretaries and workers and from minutes showing development of the work among colored women, 1907-20. Compiled by Jane Olcott Walters, Nov-Dec 1920

Box 532: folder 3-4
Paper, "Keep on Knocking: Some Interactions Between Black/White Women in the Development of the YWCA," Jill Wiske, 1993

Box 532: folder 5
"Deeper Than Race?: White Women and the Politics of Sisterhood in the YWCA," by Nancy Marie Robertson, paper given at American Historical Association annual meeting,

Box 532: folder 6
"The Negro in the Young Women's Christian Association: Interracial Policies and Practices in their Historical Setting" by Gladys Gilkey Calkins, Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, 1960.

Box 532: folder 7
Articles in the Association Monthly, Womans Press, and YWCA Magazine, 1913-68, n.d.

Box 532: folder 8
'Colored' or 'Negro' Branches: general, 1925-78, n.d.

Box 532: folder 9
National Board and National Staff

General memoranda and information, 1944-68

Box 532: folder 10
Consultation, Berea, Kentucky, 1961

Box 532: folder 11
Racial Justice Briefing Sessions, summer 1969

Box 532: folder 12
Policies and statements

General, 1935-65

Box 532: folder 13
Hotel accommodations at conferences and conventions, 1920-53, n.d.

Box 532: folder 14
Interracial Charter, 1944-81

Box 532: folder 15

Asilomar deed restrictions, 1945, n.d.

Box 532: folder 16
Grace Dodge Hotel policy, 1934-45

Box 532: folder 17
Racist incidents involving staff

Yolanda Barnett, 1944-45, n.d.

Box 532: folder 18-19
Juliette Derricotte, Nov 1931-1932

Box 533: folder 1-2
Dorothy Height, 1945

Box 533: folder 3
Segregation (concept), 1934-45

Box 533: folder 4
Staff lists, 1920-92

Box 533: folder 5
United Service Organizations (USO), 1941-54

Box 533: folder 6

General, 1917-31

Box 533: folder 7
Colored Work Committee, 1913-19

Box 533: folder 8-10
Bureau of Colored Work, 1920-21

Box 533: folder 11-12
Council on Colored Work, 1922-31

Box 533: folder 13-17
Subcommittee on Race Relations of the Public Affairs Committee, 1935-1949

[incomplete-see Series III. Public Advocacy]

Box 533: folder 18-19
[Potential] Washington Hotel Committee, 1945-46

Box 533: folder 20
Race Relations Advisory Group, 1946

Box 533: folder 21
Ad-hoc Work Group on Desegregation, 1955 [response to Brown]

Box 533: folder 22
Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Work on Racial Integration, 1957-58

Box 533: folder 23
Committee on Racial Inclusiveness, Oct 1958-61

Box 533: folder 24-25
Subcommittee on Racial Integration of the Community Division, 1965

Box 533: folder 26
Committee on Racial Integration/Racial Justice, 1965-70

Box 533: folder 27
Consultative Group on Integration, 1966

Box 534: folder 1
Departments, Divisions, and Offices

Industrial, 1918-40

Box 534: folder 2
Laboratory Division, 1933

Box 534: folder 3
Program Department, Interracial Education, 1938-47

Box 534: folder 4
Community Division, 1946-57

Box 534: folder 5
Leadership Services, Membership Resources

General, 1954-56

Box 534: folder 6
Puerto Rican Project, 1959

Box 534: folder 7
Public Affairs

General, 1933-69

Box 534: folder 8-9
Civil Rights Movement

General, 1946-66

Box 534: folder 10
"A Call to Women Who Care' 24 Oct 1966 advertisement in the New York Times, 1966-67

Box 534: folder 11
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963

Box 534: folder 12
Open Housing, 1959-67

Box 534: folder 13
Student Sit-in Demonstrations, 1960-61

Box 534: folder 14-15



Box 534: folder 16-17
1935-38, n.d.

Box 535: folder 1
Scottsboro Case, 1931-38

Box 535: folder 2-4
School desegregation and Brown v. Board of Education decision

General, 1945-59

Box 535: folder 5-6
Ad-hoc Work Group re the Implications of the Supreme Court Decision for YWCA Program (preparation for Oct 1954 National Board Meeting), 1954

Box 535: folder 7
National Board and Staff Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, Dec 1954

Box 535: folder 8
Seminar for Experienced Staff, May 1954

Box 535: folder 9
Youth March for Integrated Schools, 1958

Box 535: folder 10
Racial Integration/Justice Office, 1965-69

Box 535: folder 11
Student YWCA, 1923-68

Box 535: folder 12-14
Community Associations

General, 1929-68, n.d.

Box 535: folder 15
Swimming Pools, policies and practices, 1932-41

Box 535: folder 16
Central Region, 1926-65

Box 535: folder 17
Eastern Region

General, 1951-65

Box 535: folder 18
Baltimore, Maryland, 1954-59

Box 535: folder 19
"'And the Pressure Never Let Up:' Black Women, White Women, and the Boston YWCA, 1918-1948," paper by Sharlene Voogel Cochrane(?), fall 1988

Box 535: folder 20
Southern Region


Box 535: folder 21
South Atlantic Field Committee meeting re administration of colored work, 3 Jul 1920

Box 535: folder 22

Box 535: folder 23
"The Relationship Between Local-Cosmopolitan Leaders and Universalism-Particularism in a Social System," MS thesis (rural sociology) by Lillian Beatrice Johnson, North Carolina State University, 1965

Box 536: folder 1
Western Region, 1931-45

Box 536: folder 2
Conventions, Conferences, and Consultations (YWCA)

'History,' 1912-31 (compilation of excerpts from YWCA Records)

Box 536: folder 3

General, 1930-57

Box 536: folder 4

Materials for Working Group: Furthering Interracial Relationships

Box 536: folder 5
Meetings in response to Convention Actions, 1933

Box 536: folder 6

Box 536: folder 7

Box 536: folder 8
Conferences, general, 1912-57

Box 536: folder 9
Conference on Colored Work, Louisville, Kentucky


Box 536: folder 10

Box 536: folder 11-13
Cheyney Conference of Business and Industrial Girls, 1924

Box 536: folder 14
Branch Conferences, Institute, West Virginia, 1927-29

Box 536: folder 15
Branch Leadership Conference, Institute, West Virginia, 1931

Box 536: folder 16
Branch Conference, Wilberforce University, 1935

Box 536: folder 17
All-Day Meeting of YWCAs in Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware for Consideration of Interracial Relations, 1936

Box 536: folder 18
North Carolina Branch Conference, Durham, North Carolina, 1936

Box 537: folder 1
Branch Conference, Wilberforce University, 1937

Box 537: folder 2
Eastern Region Interracial Conference, New York City, 1942

Box 537: folder 3
Negro Leadership Conference, Institute, West Virginia, 1942

Box 537: folder 4
Workshop on Interracial Practices, Poughkeepsie, NY, 1948

Box 537: folder 5
Consultation on Desegregation in the YWCA, 1955

Box 537: folder 6
"To Fulfill these Rights," Pre-White House Conferences, 1966

Box 537: folder 7
Consultation of Black Leadership, 1969

Box 537: folder 8
Racial Justice Institutes, 1969

Box 537: folder 9
Conferences, National

National Interracial Conference, Washington, DC, 1928

Box 537: folder 10
National Conference on Fundamental Problems in the Education of Negroes, Washington, DC, 9-12 May 1934

Box 537: folder 11
Chicago Conference on Race Relations, December 1943

Box 537: folder 12
Roundtable Conference on Building Better Race Relations, Washington, DC, 24 Nov 1945

Box 537: folder 13
White House Conference on Civil Rights with Women's Organizations, 9 Jul 1963

Box 537: folder 14

Commission on Interracial Cooperation, 1932-40

Box 537: folder 15
International Council of Religious Education: survey "The Work of Overhead Religious Education Agencies Among Negroes in the U.S.," 1927

Box 537: folder 16
National Council of Negro Women, 1945-54

Box 537: folder 17
National Urban League, 1942-46

Box 537: folder 18
Programs and Projects

Community Division Action Program for Integration and Desegregation of Community YWCAs, 1963-65

Box 537: folder 19
Project Equality, 1966

Box 537: folder 20
Dialogue Program

General, 1967-68

Box 537: folder 21
Call to Dialogue and Action Kit, Jun 1968

Box 537: folder 22

General pamphlets, 1913-70

Box 538: folder 1
All Colors: A Study Outline on Woman's Part in Race Relations by E.C. Carter, published by The Inquiry, distributed by the Womans Press, 1926

Box 538: folder 2
All Races, All Creeds edited by Dorothy I. Height, 1947, 1948, 1955, 1963

Box 538: folder 3
At Home-With People: Ways of Banishing Prejudices edited by Elise F. Moller, 1945

Box 538: folder 4
The Business Girl Looks at the Negro World by Frances Harriet Williams, 1937

Box 538: folder 5
The Christian Citizen and Civil Rights by Dorothy I. Height and J. Oscar Lee, 1949

Box 538: folder 6
Consideration of the Negro Member in Associations Where There is no Organized Branch by Frances Harriet Williams, 1940

Box 538: folder 7
The Core of America's Race Problem edited by Dorothy I. Height, 1945

Box 538: folder 8
"Guide to Recording Reactions to Interracial Relationships," Leadership Services, 1957

Box 538: folder 9
The Interracial Charter and Related Policy, 1955

Box 538: folder 10
Interracial Cooperation: Helpful Suggestions Concerning Relations of White and Colored Citizens, circa 1920

Box 538: folder 11
Interracial Education as it Affects Negro and White Relationships from the Point of View of Administrative Groups by Frances Harriet Williams, 1940

Box 538: folder 12
Interracial Policies of the YWCA of the USA, edited by Dorothy I. Height, 1948

Box 538: folder 13
Interracial Programs in Student YWCAs by Yolanda B. Wilkerson, 1948

Box 538: folder 14
Outgrowths of the Interracial Structure of the YWCA: Current Administrative Practices by Cordella Winn and Frances Williams, 1934

Box 538: folder 15
"Outline for a discussion course on Race Relations in the U.S.," 1923

Box 538: folder 16
Personal Adventures in Race Relations by Esther Popel Shaw, 1946, 1948

Box 538: folder 17
Program Papers for Today and Tomorrow. No. VIII: Nationality and Race are Important (various authors) and No. IX White Man's God? A Search for evidence of democracy and the Christian faith in interracial relations by Helen J. Wilkins, 1941

Box 538: folder 18
Pudge Grows Up: Series of Meetings for High School Girls by Frances Williams and Wenonah Boyd Logan, 1936

[see Subseries D. for the complete "Pudge" series]

Box 538: folder 19
Step by Step with Interracial Groups by Dorothy I. Height, 1955

Box 539: folder 1
Techniques in Race Relations by Frances Harriet Williams, 1937

Box 539: folder 2
Three Meetings on Interracial Interests for Use in Discussion and Club Meetings by Gertrude Ware Bunce and Frances Williams, Program Series, 1934

Box 539: folder 3
Two Interracial Studies: The Interracial Situation My Association Faces; The Negro in the United States of America by Frances Williams, 1934

Box 539: folder 4
Toward Better Race Relations, Dothory {sic} Sabistan, Field Worker, Margaret Hiller, Editor, 1949

Box 539: folder 5
The Work of Colored Women by Jane Olcott, 1919

Box 539: folder 6
The World Best Known to a Negro Industrial Girl by Frances Harriet Williams, 1938

Box 539: folder 7

Occasional Educational and Informational Papers, 1936-41

Box 539: folder 8-10
Reference materials


Box 539: folder 11
1930-65, n.d.

Box 540: folder 1-11

Miscellaneous, 1909-58, n.d.

Box 541: folder 1

Eva D. Bowles, 1915-31

Box 541: folder 2
Marion Cuthbert, 1937-40

Box 541: folder 3
Isobel C. Lawson, 1938-40

Box 541: folder 4
Frances Harriet Williams, 1924-39

Box 541: folder 5
Cordella Winn, 1930-38

Box 541: folder 6
General Report on Work on Racial Inclusiveness, Sep 1956-Aug 1957 by Mary Jane Willett

Box 541: folder 7
Methods of Combating Discrimination: descriptive record submitted to the World's YWCA by the YWCA of the U.S.A., 1954

Box 541: folder 8-9
The YWCA Strategy and Action in Methods of Combating Racial Discrimination, Triennium 1955-58, submitted to the World's YWCA

Box 541: folder 10

"A New Day for the Colored Woman Worker: A Study of Colored Women in Industry in New York City," directed by a joint committee with representatives from various organizations, funded by the YWCA, 1919

Box 541: folder 11
Interracial Study, 1919 (compilation of answers to question #19 on 1918-19 annual reports of city associations)

Box 541: folder 12
Basic Civil Rights for Negroes

General, 1936, n.d.

Box 541: folder 13
Report "Fourteen Civil Rights Studies Made by Local Associations" by Frances Harriet Williams, 1938

Box 541: folder 14
Reports from Associations

Durham, North Carolina, 1936

Box 541: folder 15
Houston, Texas, 1936

Box 541: folder 16
Indianapolis, Indiana, 1936

Box 541: folder 17
Portland, Oregon, 1936

Box 541: folder 18
Wichita, Kansas, 1936

Box 541: folder 19
The Branch Study (Part II of The Standards Study), 1938

Box 542: folder 1
The Extent of Certain Practices Relating to Racial Inclusiveness in Community YWCAs

Report, 1957

Box 542: folder 2
Paper based on the study: "Experience in Interracial and Intercultural Practice" by Ruth Henderson, 1959

Box 542: folder 3
Interracial Study

Commission to Gather Interracial Experiences (a.k.a. Interracial Commission), 1941-45

Box 542: folder 4
Questionnaires, 1943

Box 542: folder 5
Report: Interracial Practices in Community YWCAs and Recommendations, 1944

Box 542: folder 6
Follow-up (aka "Rosenwald Study")

General, 1945-49, n.d.

Box 542: folder 7
Comments from Community Associations, 1944-45

Box 542: folder 8
Report: Toward Better Race Relations, 1949

Box 542: folder 9

General, 1943-63

Box 542: folder 10
Institute for Leadership in Intergroup Relations, Feb 1960

Box 542: folder 11
Seminar on Intergroup Relations and School for Professional Workers, Lake Erie College, summer 1961

Box 542: folder 12
Workshop on Racial Integration

Atlanta, Georgia, Dec 1965

Box 542: folder 13
Norman, Oklahoma, Mar 1966

Box 542: folder 14
"Racial Justice" Work, 1970-2001

General and History

General, 1970-99

Box 543: folder 1
"Case Studies in Policy Progress: The Origins of the YWCA's Anti-Racism Campaign" by Barbara J. Nelson and Alissa Hummer, 1989

Box 543: folder 2
Wingspread Conference, "Eliminating Racism: Building on YWCA Experience," 1977

Box 543: folder 3
Working Woman magazine survey on diversity in the workplace, 1994-96

Box 543: folder 4

Black History Month celebrations at '600,' 1996, n.d.

Box 543: folder 5
Dorothy I. Height Tribute Dinner (YWCA and National Council of Negro Women, 5 Nov 1986

Box 543: folder 6
Martin Luther King, Jr. Commemorations at '600,' 1985-96, n.d.

Box 543: folder 7
Reference materials, miscellaneous, 1970-74, n.d.

Box 543: folder 8

Racial Justice Core Group/Task Force, 1971-76

Box 543: folder 9-10
Committee on Racial Integration/Racial Justice, 1970?-91

Box 543: folder 11
Special Racial Justice Fund Committee, 1970

Box 543: folder 12

Center for Racial Justice Center, Program Unit, 1971-77

Box 543: folder 13
Office of Racial Justice, Executive Office

General, 1983-90

Box 543: folder 14
Proposal to Kellogg Foundation to establish a Center for Valuing Diversity, 1992

Box 543: folder 15
Office of Racial Justice and Human Rights

General, 1997-2000, n.d.

Box 543: folder 16
Job descriptions and search for Director, 1997-98

Box 543: folder 17
Hate crimes

General, 1997-2000

Box 543: folder 18
Response Kit, 1998

Box 544: folder 1
Ku Klux Klan activity, 1998-99

Box 544: folder 2
Violence Against Asian Americans, 1984-85

Box 544: folder 3
American Indians

General, 1970-85

Box 544: folder 4
American Indian Task Force, 1987

Box 544: folder 5
Reference materials, miscellaneous, circa 1970-86

Box 544: folder 6-7
Community and Student Associations

General, 1970-99

Box 544: folder 8

Mid-Peninsula (Palo Alto), 1979

Box 544: folder 9
Y-House, University of California at Berkeley: Black Women's Symposium for Action, Apr 1976

Box 544: folder 10
Maryland, Greater Baltimore Area: Breakthrough: An Action Handbook, 1975

Box 544: folder 11
Conferences, Consultations, and Convocations

National Conference of Black Women in the YWCA, 1970

Box 544: folder 12
La Conferencia de Mujeres por la Raza, Houston, May 1971

Box 544: folder 12a
Consultation of White Women in the YWCA, Oct 1972

Box 544: folder 13-14
National Convocation on Racial Justice, Jun 1972

Planning, Dec 1971-Jun 1972

Box 544: folder 15-16
Program and Participants

Box 544: folder 17
Post-Convocation material

Box 544: folder 18
Western Region Third World Coalition Workshop, Nov 1972

Box 544: folder 19
National Consultation of Native American Women of the YWCA, Nov 1973

Box 545: folder 1
Conferencia de Mujeres Puertorriqueñas, Jan 1974

Box 545: folder 2
Southern Region Consultation of Third World Women, 1974

Box 545: folder 3
Racial Justice Convocation "Toward a Racial Justice Agenda for the 21st Century," Feb 1990


Box 545: folder 4

Box 545: folder 5
Press Kit

Box 545: folder 6
Workshop Leader biographies

Box 545: folder 7
Racial Justice Conference, Apr 1999

Box 545: folder 8
Mexican-American Women, 1970

Box 545: folder 9

One Imperative: To Eliminate Racism Wherever it Exists and By Any Means Necessary

General, 1969-76, n.d.

Box 545: folder 10-11
Convention 1970 "One Imperative Convention"

Box 545: folder 12
Use of phrase "by any means necessary," 1970-71

Box 545: folder 13
Briefing sessions for National Board and staff, 1970

Box 545: folder 14
Action Audit for Change

[see also Action Audit for Change Process below]

Materials distributed at National Board and staff meeting, Sep 1976

Box 545: folder 15
Phase I: The YWCA as an Institution packet, Dec 1970

Box 545: folder 16
Phase I (copy 2)

Box 546: folder 1
Phase II: Community Audit packet, Dec 1973

Box 546: folder 2
Resource Leadership Team, 1971

Box 546: folder 3
The National Board and Its Work, 1973-79

Box 546: folder 4
Institutes, Consultations, Workshops, and Meetings

General, 1970-71

Box 546: folder 5
Consultation of Asian American Women, May 1971

Box 546: folder 6
Institute on the Web of Racism and Child Development, May 1971

Box 546: folder 7
Institute on the Web of Racism and the Communications Media, Apr 1971

Box 546: folder 8
Institute on the Web of Racism and Housing, May 1971

Box 546: folder 9
Institute on the Web of Racism and Poverty, May 1971

Box 546: folder 10
Mid-Point Meeting, Jul 1971

Box 546: folder 11
Workshop on Dance and Drama of Selected Minority Groups, Jul 1971

Box 546: folder 12
Film, 1971

Box 546: folder 13
Communications Institute (proposed), 1971

Box 546: folder 14
Action Audit for Change workbooks, 1977, circa 1990, 1994

Box 546: folder 15
Affirmative Action

General, 1973-2000, n.d.

Box 547: folder 1
"Affirmative Action Plan with Goals and Timetables and Utilization Analysis Charts," National Personnel and Labor Relations Department, 1978

Box 547: folder 2
"YWCA Affirmative Action Guide to Equal Employment," Center for Racial Justice, n.d. and Jan 1979 revised

Box 547: folder 3-5
Affirmative Action Review Team, 1991, n.d.

Box 547: folder 6
"Women Speak on Affirmative Action" packet prepared for YWCAs in Washington state, 1998

Box 547: folder 7
National Day of Commitment to Eliminate Racism


Box 547: folder 8


Box 547: folder 9
Organizer's Kit

Box 547: folder 10


Box 547: folder 11
Orientation for Congressional visits

Box 547: folder 12
Congressional briefing

Box 547: folder 13

Box 547: folder 14


Box 548: folder 1
Race Against Racism

Box 548: folder 2
Racial Justice Awards (at Convention)

General, 1984-91

Box 548: folder 3
1994: State/Regional Council winner: Pennsylvania Council of YWCAs application

Box 548: folder 4
1996: nomination, Baton Rouge

Box 548
Racial Justice Awards Dinner (fundraising gala), 1999

General, 1998-99

Box 548: folder 5
Acknowledgments, 1998-99

Box 548: folder 6
Corporate Award nominees, 1998-99

Box 548: folder 7
Corporate Award: Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae")

Box 548: folder 8
Invitations, 1999

Box 548: folder 9
Sponsors, 1999

Box 548: folder 10

Box 548: folder 11
Statewide Days of Dialogue on Race Relations, 1998

Box 548: folder 12
Stop Racism Youth Challenge

[see also National Day of Commitment to Eliminate Racism]

Steering Committee, 1999-2000

Box 548: folder 13
Reference material: 'Racism Stop It!' program in Canada, 1998-2000

Box 548: folder 14



Box 548: folder 15

Box 549: folder 1

Box 549: folder 2
Guidebook and publicity

Box 549: folder 3


Box 549: folder 4-5
Guidebook and publicity

Box 549: folder 6
White House Breakfast

Box 549: folder 7

Box 549: folder 8
Public Affairs

Angela Davis trial, 1971-72

Box 549: folder 9
Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday, 1990-94, n.d.

Box 549: folder 10
School Busing, 1972

Box 549: folder 11

General pamphlets, 1971-98

Box 549: folder 12
Black Chronicle with discussion guide, 1971

Box 549: folder 13
Career Planning for the Black Woman by Juanita Papillon and Elizabeth Morgan, circa 1972

Box 549: folder 14
Voting is People Power, 1972

Box 549: folder 15

The Barrier Breaker


Box 549: folder 16-18

Box 550: folder 1
On the Cutting Edge, Office of Racial Justice, 1987-89

Box 550: folder 2
Racial Justice and Human Rights News and Views, 1998-2000

Box 550: folder 3

General, 1970-98, n.d.

Box 550: folder 4-5
National Institute on Administration, "Introducing Social Change: An Administrator Looks at Institutional Racism," Jan 1971

Box 550: folder 6
Racial Justice Staff Development Program, 1987

Box 550: folder 7
Racial Justice Leadership Seminar, 1989

Box 550: folder 8
Mission Empowerment Process Facilitator's Manual, 1996

Box 550: folder 9
Racial Justice Training Manual and 'How To' video, 1996

Box 550: folder 10-14
Subseries D. Teenage and Younger Girls

General and History

General, 1919-97, n.d.

Box 551: folder 1-2
General brochures, 1907-85, n.d.

Box 551: folder 3-4
The Girl Reserve Movement of the Young Women's Christian Association: An Analysis of the Educational Principles and Procedures Used Throughout its History by Catherine S. Vance, 1937 (New York, NY: Columbia University Bureau of Publications)

Box 551: folder 5
"A History of the Girl Reserve Movement of the YWCA" by Mrs. Philip G. Eastwick, ca. 1931-32

Box 551: folder 6

Jubilee (1931)

Greetings from around the world

Box 551: folder 7
Correspondence re loan of greetings for exhibition

Box 551: folder 8
Sixtieth, 1941

Box 551: folder 9
Centennial celebration, 1979-81

Box 551: folder 10
Eight Week Clubs, 1913-19, n.d.

Box 551: folder 11
Memorabilia, insignias, uniform, etc., 1918-44, n.d.

Box 551: folder 12
National Teen Organization (NTO), 1973

Box 551: folder 13
Rainbow Clubs, circa 1918

Box 551: folder 14
YMCA-YWCA Cooperation, 1942

Box 551: folder 15
Department and Committees


Miscellaneous, 1960-64

Box 551: folder 16
Re revision of recruitment and membership pamphlet, 1982-83

Box 551: folder 17
Membership notebook, May 1923

Box 551: folder 18

Girl Reserve Staff and Department (includes News-Letter,) 1914, 1917-18, 1920, 1922-31,

Box 552: folder 1-10
Girl Reserve Sub-Committee/Sub-Committee on the Teen-Age Program, 1935-52, 1959

Box 552: folder 11-17
Teen-Age Program Committee, 1948-52, 1959

Box 552: folder 18-20
Teen Empowerment Committee, 1973

Box 552: folder 21
National Teen Council (NTC), 1988-2001

Box 552: folder 22-24
News-letter to secretaries and advisers, 1929-30, 1946, 1975, 1994-98

Box 553: folder 1-2
Younger Employed Girls

[see also Subseries A. Employed Women]

General, 1918-30, n.d.

Box 553: folder 3
Younger Girls in Business and Industry (YGBI), 1920-24

Box 553: folder 4

"The Why and How of Leisure Time Activities Among Younger Employed Girls" by Zelah Heinbaugh, 1925

Box 553: folder 5
"The Young Employed Girl" by Hazel G. Ormsbee, 1927

Box 553: folder 6
"The Teenage Worker: In School and Out" and "And So To Work," 1943

Box 553: folder 7
Report: YWCA work among younger employed girls by Helen McNeil, 1927-29

Box 553: folder 8
Youth Constituencies Unit, 1974

Box 553: folder 9
Conferences, Consultations, and Workshops

Conference planning guides, 1958, 1979, n.d.

Box 553: folder 10
Miscellaneous reports, 1925-31

Box 553: folder 11
Adult Guidance Councils, 1926-31

Box 553: folder 12
Branch Conferences, West Virginia Collegiate Institute, Institute, West Virginia, 1927-28

Box 553: folder 13
Consultation on the Job Market and Career Development for Teen Women, 1974

Box 553: folder 14
Consultation on Today's Teenagers, 14-15 Jan 1960

Box 553: folder 15
Consultation on Work with Economically Deprived Adolescent Girls, 1966: report "Exploring Human Space," 1967

Box 553: folder 16
Cultural Competency, Youth Development Workshop, Mar 1992

Box 553: folder 17
High School Girl Reserve Mid-Winter Conference, 1924

Box 553: folder 18
National Consultations on Teen Needs, 1981

Correspondence, planning, programs, press releases, 1981-82

Box 554: folder 1
Evaluation forms

Dallas, TX

Box 554: folder 2
Des Moines, IA

Box 554: folder 3
Lancaster, PA

Box 554: folder 4

Box 554: folder 5-6
Transcript of tape recordings

Box 554: folder 7
Work Group reports

Community Service

Box 554: folder 8

Box 554: folder 9

Box 554: folder 10
National Training School, 1930

Box 554: folder 11
National Y-Teen Conferences

[see also Record Group 4. National Conferences and Conventions]

First, 1956

Box 554: folder 12
Second, 1959

Box 554: folder 13
Third, 1965


Box 554: folder 14
Reports, bulletins, and clippings

Box 554: folder 15
Remarks by Hubert H. Humphrey

Box 554: folder 16
National Y-Teen Assembly, 1982

Box 554: folder 17
National Teen Assembly


Box 555: folder 1

General, 1989-91

Box 555: folder 2
Planning, 1990

Box 555: folder 3

Box 555: folder 4
Speakers and workshops

Box 555: folder 5

Box 555: folder 6

Box 555: folder 7

General and planning, 1997-98

Box 555: folder 8
Packet for attendees

Box 555: folder 9

Verbatim report, 1922

Box 555: folder 10
Findings of National Girl Reserve Staff Conference, April 1923

Box 555: folder 11
Sep 1923

Box 555: folder 12
Report of the Findings Committee of the Girl's Work Department Conference, Oct 1923

Box 555: folder 13

Box 555: folder 14
Summary, Apr-May 1925

Box 555: folder 15
Minutes, Oct 1925

Box 555: folder 16
Findings, Apr-May 1926

Box 555: folder 17
Jun-Jul 1926

Box 555: folder 18

Box 555: folder 19
Apr 1928

Box 555: folder 20

Box 555: folder 21
29 Dec 1939-5 Jan 1940 General and report "New Directions: Findings from the National Conference for Girl Reserve Secretaries"

Box 555: folder 22
28 Dec 1950-3 Jan 1951 Report and abridged report "We Look Ahead: Findings of the National Conference for Teen-Age Program Directors"

Box 555: folder 23

Miscellaneous, 1929-31

Box 556: folder 1
Sapphire, NC, 1930

Box 556: folder 2
Camp Merrie-Woode, Sapphire, NC, 1932

Box 556: folder 3
Camp Lookout, Golden, CO, 1943

Box 556: folder 4
Camp Lookout, Golden, CO, 1945

Box 556: folder 5
Comments on 16 Y-Teen Summer Conferences, 1949

Box 556: folder 6
Southeastern, Blue Ridge Assembly Grounds, 1957

Box 556: folder 7
"A Study of the Effect of the Interracial Aspects of the Program of Six Y-Teen Summer Conferences in the Southern Region on Girls Who Attended from 1958 through 1962" by Lillian H. Jackson

Box 556: folder 8
Report of the 1959 Y-Teen Summer Conferences and Supportive Adult Training in the Southern Region

Box 556: folder 9
Y-Teen Summer Conference Leaders' Institute, Central Region, 1960

Box 556: folder 10
Report of Y-Teen Conferences in the Southern Region, Summer, 1962

Box 556: folder 11
Tri-State Area Y-Teen Area Conference, Chatham College, Pittsburgh, PA, 1964

Conference packet

Box 556: folder 12
Planning Committee

Box 556: folder 13

Box 556: folder 14
Workshop materials

Box 556: folder 15
Report to the Field Foundation on Y-Teen Conferences in the Southern Region, Summer 1965

Box 556: folder 16
Texas-Louisiana Y-Teen Summer Conference, Jun 1966

Box 556: folder 17
Programs and Projects

General and miscellaneous, 1960-68

Box 556: folder 18
Becoming a Woman workshops, San Francisco YWCA, 1982

Box 556: folder 19
Juvenile Justice Program, 1978-81

Box 556: folder 20
National Youth Service Day, 1998

Box 556: folder 21
National Youthworker Education Project

General, 1976-80, n.d

Box 557: folder 1-5
Evaluation Conference, 12 Dec 1979

Box 557: folder 6
NYEP Update, 1978-79

Box 557: folder 7
Required readings, 1976, n.d.

Box 557: folder 8
Neighborhood Youth Consumer Education Project, 1972-75

Box 557: folder 9
Summer Youth Demonstration Project

Report to U.S. Department of Labor, Nov 1967

Vol. 1

Box 557: folder 10
Vol. 2

Box 557: folder 11
Abridged report

Box 558: folder 1
Teen Counseling Project, YWCA Resource Center on Women and Bank Street College of Education

General, 1974

Box 558: folder 2
"Attention is Needed, Action is Called For: Teen Women Tell About Their Needs," report on Teen Counseling Project Workshops, 1974

Box 558: folder 3
"Cause for Action: Report of the Proposal for Determining the Needs of Teen-Age Women and the Educational Services they Require in a Changing World," ca. 1973

Box 558: folder 4
Summary Report, "A Job at the End: Guidelines for Teen Counseling, Training and Career Development," 1975

Box 558: folder 5
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program

General, 1994, n.d.

Box 558: folder 6
Information packet, circa 1989

Box 558: folder 7
"It's Okay to Say No Way" brochure and leader's guide to music video, 1986

Box 558: folder 8
List of community Associations' programs, 1995

Box 558: folder 9
P.A.C.T. (Peer Approach Counseling by Teens)

Cleveland YWCA: curriculum packet, circa 1980

Box 558: folder 10
Taking the Lead with P.A.C.T.: Peer Education in Sexuality and Health, National YWCA program manual, 1989

Box 558: folder 11
Teen Pregnancy Reduction Program: proposal to Ford Foundation, 1983

Box 558: folder 12
Teen Sexuality Education Project: final report, 1982

[see also Elizabeth Steel Genné Papers]

Box 559: folder 1
Teens for Aids Prevention (T.A.P.), Center for Population Options and YWCAs of Atlanta, GA, Hartford, CT, and Greater Milwaukee, WI, 1990

Box 559: folder 2-3
Tomorrow's Women, 1990-91, n.d.

Box 559: folder 4
Y-Teen Roll Call Week: publicity kit, 1949

Box 559: folder 5
YWCA Teen Week: publicity kit, 1988

Box 559: folder 6
Young Women's Employment Training Project (YWETP)

General, 1984-87

Box 559: folder 7
State-of-the-Art Paper and literature review by Harriet G. Dockstader, 1986

Box 559: folder 8
Youth Employment Project (YEP), National Collaboration for Youth, 1979-83

Box 559: folder 9
Youth Development Program

General, 1991-2000

Box 559: folder 10
Notebook, circa 1999 (includes information about YWCA/PepsiCo Girls Leadership Program, Mott Pregnancy Prevention Program, and TechGRYRLS)

Box 559: folder 11-13

General, 1997-2002, n.d.

Box 560: folder 1
Program manual, 2002

Box 560: folder 2
Training manual, n.d.

Box 560: folder 3
Community Association programs

Winnetka Elementary School, Dallas, Texas, 1998

Box 560: folder 4-5
Riverside, California: Challenges of Youth, 1998

Box 560: folder 6
Western Massachusetts: Our Health, Our Futures, 1999

Box 560: folder 7
Youth Workers Team Learning Project

Proposals to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1969-70

Box 560: folder 8
Final Report, 1972

Box 560: folder 9

Character, citizenship, and religion

General, 1915-69

Box 561: folder 1-5
"Life and I" by Oolooah Burner, 1926-42

Box 561: folder 6
Handbooks and year books for Girl Reserves/Y-Teens

The Girl Reserves: A Guide for Every Loyal Blue Triangle Girl, 1919-23

Box 561: folder 7
Treasure Trove, 1921

Box 561: folder 8
The Girl's Every Day Book, 1926, 1928

Box 561: folder 9-10
The Girls' Yearbook, 1917-30

Box 562: folder 1-5
My Own Book, 194

Box 563: folder 1
Girls Yearbook, 1945

Box 563: folder 2
Teens: How to Meet Your Problems, 1951

Box 563: folder 3
Our Yearbook: Y-Teen, 1951-62

Box 563: folder 4
High School/Boarding School

General, 1924, 1928

Box 563: folder 5-6
Suggested Constitutions for secondary school Associations, 1918, 1920

Box 563: folder 7
The Inch Library

First Inch, 1915, circa 1920

Box 563: folder 8-9
Second Inch, 1916-circa 1920

Box 564: folder 1-2
Third Inch, 1918

Box 564: folder 3-4
Manuals and training materials for teen committee, group leaders, and staff



Box 564: folder 5-6

Box 565: folder 1-8

Box 566: folder 1-6
Committee, 1917-63

Box 566: folder 7-11
Parents groups, 1937-45

Box 566: folder 12
Junior High School Advisers, 1938, 1943

Box 567: folder 1-2
Registered Clubs, 1929-65

Box 567: folder 3-4
Volunteers, 1949, n.d.

Box 567: folder 5


Box 567: folder 6
Banquet Suggestions for Girls and Their Mothers, 1937, 1944

Box 567: folder 7
Baby Sitters: A Basic Training Manual, 1956-62

Box 567: folder 8
The Home-Town Vacation, 1933

Box 567: folder 9
Program materials



Box 567: folder 10
A Program Book for Girl Reserves, 1932

Box 567: folder 11
Program Emphases Interpreted for Younger Girl Conferences and Club Work in the YWCAs, 1936

Box 567: folder 12
Another Program Book for Girl Reserves, 1936, 1940

Box 567: folder 13
Public Affairs Size 16, 1939-40

Box 568: folder 1
Girl Reserve Program for Today, 1943

Box 568: folder 2
Program Ideas for Y-Teens, 1946

Box 568: folder 3
Youth Together and Youth on Trial: Program Ideas for YMCA and YWCA High School Youth Groups, 1947-48

Box 568: folder 4

Box 568: folder 5
Health, sex education, and personal relations


Box 568: folder 6-15
High school, 1919-20

Box 568: folder 16
Interracial issues

"Pudge" series, 1936-42

Box 568: folder 17-19
"Help in Program Planning for American Indian Girls in YWCA and Girl Reserve Groups," n.d.

Box 569: folder 1
Leadership, 1938-46

Box 569: folder 2-3
World Fellowship, 1932-36

Box 569: folder 4-5
Younger girls (grade and junior high school), 1916-47

Box 569: folder 6-7

The Girls' Work Book Shelf, 1918-22 [bound copies]

Box 569: folder 8
The Girl Reserve Bookshelf: A Resource for Advisers of Girls Activities, 1923-25 [photocopies]

Box 570: folder 1
The Bookshelf: A Bulletin for Leaders of Younger Girls/Girl Reserve Advisers/Teenage Program Advisers/Advisers of Y-Teens [bound copies]

1925-Dec 1942

Box 570: folder 2-4
1943-winter 1964/65

Box 571: folder 1-4
Spr 1965-Spr 1968

Box 572: folder 1
Y-Teen Scene, summer 1968-73

Box 572: folder 2
National Adolescent Sexuality Brief, 1983-84

Box 572: folder 3
Newsletter for Teen-Age Program Directors, 1950-52

Box 572: folder 4
Teen Brief, 1983-85

Box 572: folder 5
Teen Freedom, 1973-75

Box 572: folder 6
Reference materials

General, 1922-65

Box 572: folder 7
Beside Our Campfires, A Girl Reserve's Goodnight by Suzanne Weddell, 1925

Box 572: folder 8
Understanding the Adolescent Girl by Grace Loucks Elliott, 1930, 1949

Box 573: folder 1

Miscellaneous, 1927-97

Box 573: folder 2

Summary of Work, 1927-28

Box 573: folder 3-4
Annual Meeting, 4-6 Dec 1929

Box 573: folder 5
Biennial Report, Jan 1930

Box 573: folder 6
Girl Reserve Secretarial Seminar, 1931

Box 573: folder 7
Memorandum on status of Girl Reserve work, 1924

Box 573: folder 8
Secretaries' annual and general reports

Esther A. Dayman, 1923, 1925

Box 573: folder 9
Gertrude Gogin, 1927

Box 573: folder 10
Rhoda Harris, 1925

Box 573: folder 11
Bella Taylor McKnight, 1929, 1931

Box 573: folder 12
Helen McNeil, 1929-31

Box 573: folder 13
Helen E. Price, 1923-24

Box 573: folder 14
Margaret A. West, 1922

Box 573: folder 15
Edith G. Wilson, 1929-31

Box 573: folder 16
Georgia Wittich, 1923

Box 573: folder 17
Summary of problems relating to work plans of Girl Reserve staff, 1936-37

Box 573: folder 18
Summary of work plans, Girl Reserve staff, proposed for 1937-38

Box 573: folder 19
Recommendations to Leadership Division Committee, Jan 1940

Box 573: folder 20
Summer School, Berkeley, 1927

Box 573: folder 21

Alabama, 1923, 1926

Box 573: folder 22
Arizona, 1923-24, 1927

Box 573: folder 23
Arkansas, 1929-31

Box 573: folder 24
California, 1923-28

Box 573: folder 25
Canal Zone, 1930

Box 573: folder 26
Colorado, 1923-31

Box 573: folder 27
Connecticut, 1923-31

Box 573: folder 28
Delaware, 1923-24, 1930

Box 573: folder 29
District of Columbia, 1923, 1931

Box 573: folder 30
Florida, 1923-26

Box 573: folder 31
Georgia, 1923, 1929

Box 573: folder 32
Idaho, 1923, 1927

Box 573: folder 33
Illinois, 1931

Box 573: folder 34
Iowa, 1926-31

[see also Rural Communities Committee]

Box 573: folder 35
Kansas, 1928, 1931

Box 573: folder 36
Kentucky, 1931

Box 573: folder 37
Louisiana, 1926,1931

Box 573: folder 38
Maine, 1924

Box 573: folder 39
Maryland, 1925, 1931

Box 573: folder 40
Massachusetts, 1923-25

Box 573: folder 41
Minnesota, 1930

Box 573: folder 42
Missouri, 1928-31

Box 573: folder 43
Montana, 1923, 1927

Box 573: folder 44
Nebraska, 1930

Box 573: folder 45
Nevada, 1923

Box 573: folder 46
New Hampshire, 1924-25

Box 573: folder 47
New Jersey, 1923-31

Box 573: folder 48
New Mexico, 1924

Box 573: folder 49
New York, 1923-31

Box 573: folder 50
North Carolina, 1924-29

Box 573: folder 51
Ohio, 1931

Box 573: folder 52
Oklahoma, 1930-31

Box 573: folder 53
Oregon, 1923-28

Box 573: folder 54
Pennsylvania, 1923-31

Box 574: folder 1
Rhode Island, 1924-25

Box 574: folder 2
South Carolina, 1924, 1926

Box 574: folder 3
South Dakota, 1930

Box 574: folder 4
Tennessee, 1923, 1929

Box 574: folder 5
Texas, 1930-31

Box 574: folder 6
Utah, 1923, 1927

Box 574: folder 7
Virginia, 1924-27

Box 574: folder 8
Washington, 1923-27

Box 574: folder 9
West Virginia, 1923-27

Box 574: folder 10
Wisconsin, 1930

Box 574: folder 11
Wyoming, 1927

Box 574: folder 12
What are the needs and problems of the modern younger girl? How are they being met? ca. 1928

Box 574: folder 13
Y-Teens and Y-Teens Leaders meetings at national convention, 1955

Box 574: folder 14

Best Girl Reserve Methods: compilation of responses to questionnaire, 1940

Box 574: folder 15
The Job of the Younger Girls' Secretary in the YWCA, 1944

Box 574: folder 16
Local Work, summary of a study, 1927-28

Box 574: folder 17
Looking for Gremlins in Girl Reserve Clubs, 1944

Box 574: folder 18
Major Problems Study, 1939-40

Central region

Box 574: folder 19
Northeast region

Box 574: folder 20
Northwest region

Box 574: folder 21
Southern region

Box 574: folder 22
Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions

Box 574: folder 23
Western region

Box 574: folder 24
[Girl Reserve] Section Studies

Correspondence, 1927-29

Box 574: folder 25
Reports, 1928-30

Box 574: folder 26
Survey: Are Teen-Agers Responsible Citizens?: report 1954

Box 575: folder 1
Survey of Adolescent Programs in YWCA member associations, 1998-99 (includes other corr re Youth-related programs)

[see also Record Group 8 for an earlier, similar survey]

Box 575
Arkansas, El Dorado

Box 575: folder 2

Contra Costa County

Box 575: folder 3
Harbor Area

Box 575: folder 4
Los Angeles, Greater

Box 575: folder 5

Box 575: folder 6

Box 575: folder 7
San Francisco

Box 575: folder 8
San Gabriel Valley

Box 575: folder 9
Santa Clara Valley

Box 575: folder 10
Santa Monica

Box 575: folder 11

Box 575: folder 12
West End

Box 575: folder 13
Colorado: Boulder

Box 575: folder 14
Connecticut: Greenwich

Box 575: folder 15
Delaware: New Castle County

Box 575: folder 16
Florida: Miami, Greater

Box 575: folder 17
Georgia: Atlanta, Greater

Box 575: folder 18


Box 575: folder 19
Evanston/North Shore

Box 575: folder 20

Box 575: folder 21
Sauk Valley

Box 575: folder 22


Box 575: folder 23
Fort Wayne

Box 575: folder 24


Box 575: folder 25

Box 575: folder 26

Central Massachusetts

Box 575: folder 27

Box 575: folder 28
Western Massachusetts

Box 575: folder 29
Maine: Mount Desert Island

Box 575: folder 30

Bay County

Box 575: folder 31

Box 575: folder 32
Minnesota: Mankato

Box 575: folder 33

Kansas City

Box 576: folder 1
St. Joseph

Box 576: folder 2
St. Louis

Box 576: folder 3
Montana: Billings

Box 576: folder 4
Nebraska: Lincoln

Box 576: folder 5
New Hampshire: Manchester

Box 576: folder 6
New Jersey

Essex and West Hudson

Box 576: folder 7
Hudson County

Box 576: folder 8
Montclair and North Essex

Box 576: folder 9

Box 576: folder 10
New Mexico: Albuquerque

Box 576: folder 11
New York

City of New York, Flushing Branch

Box 576: folder 12

Box 576: folder 13
Elmira and the Twin Tiers

Box 576: folder 14

Box 576: folder 15

Box 576: folder 16
The Tonawandas and Niagara Frontier

Box 576: folder 17
Ulster County

Box 576: folder 18

Box 576: folder 19
White Plains and Central Westchester

Box 576: folder 20
North Carolina

Central Carolinas

Box 576: folder 21

Box 576: folder 22
High Point

Box 576: folder 23
Wake County

Box 576: folder 24
Oregon: Portland

Box 576: folder 15


Box 576: folder 26

Box 576: folder 27

Box 576: folder 28

Box 576: folder 29

Box 576: folder 30

Box 576: folder 31

Box 577: folder 1

Box 577: folder 2

Box 577: folder 3


Box 577: folder 4

Box 577: folder 5
Gettysburg and Adams County

Box 577: folder 6

Box 577: folder 7

Box 577: folder 8
West Chester, Greater

Box 577: folder 9
Rhode Island, Greater

Box 577: folder 10
South Carolina


Box 577: folder 11
The Midlands

Box 577: folder 12

Blount County

Box 577: folder 13

Box 577: folder 14

Box 577: folder 15

Box 577: folder 16
Middle Tennessee

Box 577: folder 17

El Paso del Norte Region

Box 577: folder 18
San Antonio

Box 577: folder 19


Box 577: folder 20
Tacoma-Pierce County

Box 577: folder 21
West Virginia: Wheeling

Box 577: folder 22

Coulee Region

Box 577: folder 23
Green Bay

Box 577: folder 24
Milwaukee, Greater

Box 577: folder 25

Box 577: folder 26

Box 577: folder 27
Work with Younger Girls in the YWCA by Helen E. Davis, 1932-34

Box 577: folder 28
Youth Work Techniques Development Centers: proposal to U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1970

Box 577: folder 29


Box 578
Miscellaneous items from local Girl Reserve Clubs, 1925-38

Box 578: folder 1
Hand-Book, YWCA of Northfield Seminary, 1894-95

Box 578: folder 2
Maria de Jesus Lopez, Girl Reserve scrapbook, 1941-43, Mexican Community House Girl Reserves, El Paso, Texas

Box 578: folder 3-6

Sleeve boxes for Inch Library

Box 579
Preservation copies of Bookshelf [mostly unbound][DO NOT USE]

Box 580

Box 580: folder 1-13

Box 581: folder 1-13
Preservation copies of Y-Teen Scene

Box 581: folder 14-16
Subseries E. Young Adults

Home Women: general, 1948-49

Box 583: folder 1
YW-Wives: general, 1950-57, n.d.

Box 583: folder 2
Young Adult Program

General, 1950-78, n.d.

Box 583: folder 3
Committee/Council, 1951-52, 1961

Box 583: folder 4
National Young Adult Conference, Nov 1969: Program Memo to Staff, Feb 1970

Box 583: folder 5

Program Papers 1966, I. The YWCA Serves Young Adults Under 251966

Box 584: folder 1
Young Adult Working Papers, fall 1968

Box 584: folder 2
Young Adults and the YWCA (booklets 1-7), 1953-54

Box 584: folder 3
Young Adults and the YWCA (quarterly), 1954-58

Box 584: folder 4-7
Young Adults in the YWCA: Program Guide, 1959

Box 584: folder 8
Young Adults in the 1960s: Changing Lives, Changing Program, 1964

Box 584: folder 9
Young Women Committed to Action

General, 1970-74, n.d.

Box 584: folder 10
Continuing Committee, 1973-74

Box 584: folder 11
Assembly, Mar 1973

Box 584: folder 12

"Basic Notebook," 1974

Box 584: folder 13
"Behind Every Face There is a Soul" Program Tool (poster book), winter 1967

Box 584: folder 14
Newsletter, Sep 1971, n.d.

Box 584: folder 15
"YWCA Program is Doing Not Talking," Oct 1970

Box 584: folder 16

Affirmative Process Skills Development, Dec 1972

Box 584: folder 17
Mobilize, Dec 1974

Box 584: folder 18
Youth Constituencies Unit

General, 1974

Box 584: folder 19
Manual "New Young Women in the YWCA: a manual for mobilizing young women in the YWCA through a self-renewal program process," 1975

Box 584: folder 20

Search Terms
The following terms represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Use these headings to search for additional materials on this web site, in the Five College Library Catalog, or in other library catalogs and databases.

  • Adolescence--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • African American women--Employment--History--Sources
  • African American women--Social conditions--History--20th century
  • African Americans--Civil rights--History--20th century--Sources
  • American Labor Education Service
  • Businesswomen--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Child rearing--History--Sources
  • Children--Health and hygiene--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Civil rights movements--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Coit, Eleanor G.
  • Ethnicity--United States--History--20th century
  • Girls--Societies and clubs--History--20th century--Sources
  • Immigrants--United States--History--20th century-- Sources
  • Indian women--North America--History--20th century--Sources
  • Labor laws and legislation--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Labor--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Mothers and daughters--United States--History
  • Race awareness--United States
  • Race relations--United States
  • Simms, Florence, 1873-1923
  • Social work with immigrants--United States--History--Sources
  • Teenage girls--United States--History
  • Trade and professional associations--United States--History--Sources
  • Women domestics--United States
  • Women in the labor movement--United States--History--20th century--Sources
  • Women--Employment--History--Sources
  • Women--Employment--United States--History--20th century--Sources

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