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Carel B. Germain Papers, 1922-1998 (Bulk: 1970-1995)
40 boxes (14.4 linear ft.)
Collection number: 301

Abstract:
Professor of social work. Germain taught graduate courses that focused on the ecological approach to social work theory and practice. Her subject files are voluminous and contain material on a wide range of topics relevant to the teaching and practice of social work. Material includes biographical information, writings, correspondence, and audio tapes of Germain teaching Ego Psychology. Correspondents include Ann Hartman, Joan Laird, Alex Gitterman, and Anita Lightburn.

Terms of Access and Use:

Restrictions on access:

The papers are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection.

Restrictions on use:

The Sophia Smith Collection owns copyright to unpublished works of Carel Bailey Germain. Copyright to materials created by others may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights. Permission must be obtained from the Sophia Smith Collection to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Sophia Smith Collection
Smith College
Northampton, MA

Biographical Note
Carel and Bill Germain "in the kitchen-- where else?...our home on Beacon St., Boston," 1969

Carel and Bill Germain "in the kitchen--
where else?...our home on Beacon St., Boston,"
1969

Carel Bailey was born in San Francisco on 23 October 1916 to Thomas J. and Lera Bailey. She graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1937 with a degree in economics, and lived and worked in the Bay Area until moving east in 1958. She married William Germain in 1941, and after raising twin daughters earned her MSW (1961) and DSW (1971) at the Columbia University School of Social Work. Upon completion of her MSW degree, Germain embarked on a distinguished career as a professor and prolific author in the field of social work. She taught at the University of Maryland for several years and, after finishing her doctorate, was appointed with tenure, first to Columbia University and then to the University of Connecticut, where she taught until her retirement in 1987. Germain offered graduate level courses that focused on the ecological approach to social work theory and practice. Although she was also versed in the history of social work, she only once offered a course on the subject (in the Spring 1973 semester at Columbia). Germain wrote seven books, the most important of which were The Life Model of Social Work Practice, 1980 (co-authored with Alex Gitterman) and Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View, 1991. She also published widely in professional journals and was in great demand as a speaker, guest lecturer, reviewer and author of chapters and introductions for social work anthologies and for books by colleagues. She died in Avon, Connecticut on 3 August 1995.

Germain is perhaps best known for her pioneering work in the "ecological" or "life model" approach to social work practice. She first developed the concept of an "ecological perspective" while teaching at Columbia in the mid-seventies, and later elaborated upon it in collaboration with a colleague, Alex Gitterman. Social work theory and practice had traditionally been based on a Freudian psychotherapeutic model in which diagnosis and treatment focused primarily on the psychology of the individual client and the dynamics of the immediate family. Although clinical social workers had long been aware that people exist in a more extensive social and psychological matrix, the profession lacked a conceptual framework that linked broader environmental and cultural influences to difficulties faced by individual clients. Using metaphors borrowed from the biological definition of ecology ("the relation between living organisms and their environment"), Germain laid the foundation for the needed structure. As she and Gitterman wrote in the 19th Encyclopedia of Social Work, "The ecological perspective makes clear the need to view people and environments as a unitary system within a particular cultural and historical context. Both person and environment can be fully understood only in terms of their relationship, in which each continually influences the other within a particular context. Hence, all concepts derived from the ecological metaphor refer not to environment alone or person alone; rather, each concept expresses a particular person: environment relationship, whether it is positive, negative or neutral." (Germain and Gitterman, 1995) Over time, Germain and Gitterman found that, in addition to its applicability to work with individuals and families, the ecological perspective was also relevant to larger groups, organizations, communities, and to political advocacy in general. They elaborated on this expanded concept in The Life Model of Social Work Practice: Advances in Theory and Practice, 1996.

Scope and Contents of the Collection

The Carel Bailey Germain Papers include biographical information; personal and professional correspondence; materials pertaining to Germain's graduate education and her subsequent professional work; research files for specific course offerings and writings; and typed manuscripts of some of her writings.

Note: Some research and subject materials that were originally filed in a single folder were divided into two or more folders for preservation purposes and for ease of handling. In addition, since Germain used teaching materials, research materials and general subject files for books and journal articles coterminously, there is some overlap in the contents of these files; therefore, the purposes of some researchers may require consulting Series III, V, and VI.

Personal and professional correspondence (Series IV) is arranged alphabetically by the correspondent's last name or, where appropriate, by name of institution. All writings (Series V) are in chronological order, and reviews of Germain's books are located at the end of the section relating to each volume. To facilitate cross-referencing, there is an appendix at the end of the finding aid that lists articles and book titles alphabetically as well as chronologically.


Information on Use
Terms of Access and Use
Restrictions on access:

The papers are open to research according to the regulations of the Sophia Smith Collection.

Restrictions on use:

The Sophia Smith Collection owns copyright to unpublished works of Carel Bailey Germain. Copyright to materials created by others may be owned by those individuals or their heirs or assigns. It is the responsibility of the researcher to identify and satisfy the holders of all copyrights. Permission must be obtained from the Sophia Smith Collection to publish reproductions or quotations beyond "fair use."

Preferred Citation

Please use the following format when citing materials from this collection:

Carel Bailey Germain Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.

History of the Collection

Carel Bailey Germain donated her papers to the Sophia Smith Collection from 1984 until her death in 1995. Her family has continued to add to the collection.

Processing Information

Processed by Burd Schlessinger, 1997.


Additional Information
Contact Information
Sophia Smith Collection
Smith College
Northampton, MA 01063

Phone: (413) 585-2970
Fax: (413) 585-2886

Email Reference Form: http://www.smith.edu/libraries/libs/ssc/emailform.html
URL: http://www.smith.edu/libraries/libs/ssc/
Language
English.
Sponsor
Encoding funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Series Descriptions
(1922-95)
.8 linear feet.

This series includes biographical information, obituaries and tributes, memorabilia, memoirs, and photographs. In part, this series documents Germain's girlhood involvement with the Camp Fire Girls in California, a formative experience that instilled a deep love of the natural world and, according to Germain, later contributed to the development of her ecological model of social work theory.

(1932-94)
.4 linear feet.

This series is arranged chronologically. Although there are some items that relate to Germain's early education or that were incidental to her educational status later in life, the bulk of the series is comprised of notes and other materials generated by doctoral level courses at the Columbia University School of Social Work. Germain cited Lucille Austin, Bernard Barber and Irving Miller as having profoundly influenced her thinking, which might explain why she chose to save materials from their courses.

(1964-95)
.3 linear feet.

This series is arranged by type of activity. It includes papers relating to such activities as committee and board work, thesis and dissertation advising, participation in conferences and seminars, and membership in professional associations. The series also includes some teaching materials.

(1943-95)
.8 linear feet.

Professional correspondence spans Germain's entire career and illustrates both the breadth of her professional interests and the level of respect she earned in the field of social work; it is approximately half incoming and half outgoing. Most of the personal correspondence dates from the mid-1980s, with the exception of a set of letters from William Germain to Carel, written during his tour of duty in World War II. The personal correspondence consists mostly of incoming letters, but some do include Germain's replies.

(1979-96)
5.3 linear feet.

This series consists of correspondence, research materials, notes relating to specific writings, and drafts of some writings. It also includes Germain's commentaries on and reviews of writings by peers, articles she wrote for social work publications, as well as forewords, introductions and chapters for books by colleagues. "Research materials--unidentified" (located in Boxes 13 and 14) is a sub-series of "Published works" and pertains to both The Life Model of Social Work Practice: Advances in Theory and Practice, 1996 and to a revised edition of Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological Approach 1991; the files indicate an overlap, and Germain apparently used them to work on both books simultaneously. Research materials relating to the writing of Germain's books are of interest in that they reveal the steps involved in producing a manuscript and seeing it through to publication. Similarly, extensive correspondence with co-author Alex Gitterman (filed in this series under The Life Model of Social Work Practice, 1980 and The Life Model of Social Work Practice: Advances in Theory and Practice, 1996) offers insight into the collaborative writing process. Series V also contains 1.4 linear feet of data relating to unpublished works, including Germain's dissertation, "Casework and Science: A Study in the Sociology of Knowledge".


6.7 linear feet.

This series contains subject files and is arranged alphabetically. It includes almost half the collection and is comprised of extensive files on a wide range of topics relevant to the teaching and practice of social work, including a substantial section on the history of the profession. There is also .5 linear foot of segments of published proceedings of The National Conference of Social Work and the National Conference on Social Welfare (apparently synonymous), which span but do not include all the years 1926-61. Files in this series are mostly undated, but it seems that Germain collected the material throughout her career. Although Germain read the New York Times and regularly clipped articles that related to her work, space limitations and the ready availability of this source dictated that most of the newsclippings in the subject files could not be retained. (Exceptions include New York Times Magazine articles, subject files comprised primarily of newsclippings, and clippings specifically about social work theory and practice.)

Contents List
SERIES I. BIOGRAPHICAL



Biographical articles,
1971-93, n.d.

Box 1: folder 1
Curricula vitae,
1988-95, n.d.

Box 1: folder 2
Condolences, obituaries, gifts in memoriam,
1995

Box 1: folder 3
Donation of papers to Sophia Smith Collection,
1984-95, n.d.

Box 1: folder 4
Campfire Girls, Camp Deep Woods,
1922-60, n.d.

Box 1: folder 5
Memoirs,
1991-92, n.d.

Box 1: folder 6
Travel diary, Ireland,
n.d.

Box 1: folder 7
Honors, awards, retirement,
1969-95, n.d.

Box 1: folder 8
Humorous, anecdotal material,
n.d.

Box 1: folder 9
General family,
1969, 1977, n.d.

Box 1: folder 10
Photographs,
1930-94, n.d.

Box 1: folder 11
Scrapbook,
n.d.

Box 2: folder 12
Scrapbook,
n.d.

Box 2: folder 13
Photo album, Camp Wasibo,
1928-44, n.d.

Box 2: folder 14
SERIES II. EDUCATION



Note:
Miscellaneous



High school graduation,
1932

Box 3: folder 15
Transcripts,
1961, 1967, 1971

Box 3
Correspondence,
1994

Box 3
Doctoral courses



Note:
Course notes, "Social Casework" with Lucille Austin,
1966

Box 3: folder 16-18
Course notes, "History and Philosophy of Social Welfare" with Irving Miller,
1966

Box 3: folder 19-20
Course notes, "Sociology of Knowledge" with Bernard Barber,
1967

Box 3: folder 21
Course notes, unidentified


Box 3: folder 22
Academic degrees



Certificates


Box 3A: folder 15a
Note:
SERIES III. PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES



Conferences and seminars,
1964-85

Box 4: folder 23
Committee and board work
1984-86

Box 4: folder 24
Dissertation and thesis advising,
1975, 1981, 1989, 1992, 1995, n.d.

Box 4: folder 25
Teaching materials



Syllabi, bibliographies, references,
1972, 1982, n.d.

Box 4: folder 26
Lecture notes,
1973, 1975, 1977, n.d.

Box 4: folder 27
Notes,
1972-73, 1987, n.d.

Box 4: folder 28
Examples,
1973-90, n.d.

Box 4: folder 29
"History of Social Work"


Box 4: folder 30-31
Writings by peers,
1972, 1987, n.d.

Box 5: folder 31a
Writings by students,
1969, 1973, 1977, 1984, n.d.

Box 5: folder 31b
Professional associations



Council on Social Work Education,
1979-86

Box 5: folder 32
National Association of Social Workers,
1979-87

Box 5: folder 33
SERIES IV. CORRESPONDENCE



Personal



Family



General,
1982-93

Box 6: folder 34
William Germain, World War II letters (copies, excerpted and typed by Carel Germain),
1943-45

Box 6: folder 35
Friends



General, A-Z,
1984-95

Box 6: folder 36
Bloom, Martin and Lynn,
1989-95

Box 6: folder 37
Hartman, Ann,
1993-95

Box 6: folder 38
Laird, Joan,
1988-95, n.d.

Box 6: folder 39
Lee, Judith,
1980-1995, n.d.

Box 6: folder 40
Middleman, Ruth,
1993-95

Box 6: folder 41
Ng, Agnes,
1990-94

Box 6: folder 42
Patterson, Shirley,
1985-95, n.d.

Box 6: folder 43
Zschocke, Thomas,
1993, 1994, n.d.

Box 6: folder 44
Unidentified,
1944, 1985, 1993, n.d.

Box 6: folder 45
Professional



Employment,
1969-86, n.d.

Box 7: folder 46
Canadian,
1981-90, n.d.

Box 7: folder 47
Invitations to participate, A-P,
1973-88

Box 7: folder 48
Invitations to participate, R-W,
1973-88

Box 7: folder 49
General, A-W,
1961, 1973-94

Box 7: folder 50
Letters of reference, A-B,
1982-92

Box 7: folder 51
Letters of reference, H-W,
1982-92

Box 7: folder 52
Students,
1973, 1977, 1992

Box 7: folder 53
SERIES V. WRITINGS



Published works



Books



Social Work Practice: People and Environments,
1979


Correspondence and pre-publication reviews,
1975-80, n.d.

Box 8: folder 54
Reviews


Box 8: folder 54a
The Life Model of Social Work Practice, (co-authored with Alex Gitterman)
1980


Correspondence,
1975-87

Box 8: folder 55
Pre-publication reviews,
n.d.

Box 8: folder 56
Incomplete manuscript and contract for German edition,
1981

Box 8: folder 57
Reviews


Box 8: folder 57a
Social Work Practice in Health Care,
1984


Correspondence,
1983-84

Box 8: folder 58
Reviews


Box 8: folder 58a
Advances in Clinical Social Work Practice,
1985


Reviews


Box 8: folder 58b
Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View,
1991


Note:
Correspondence,
1981-95

Box 8: folder 59
Permissions,
1988-89

Box 8: folder 60
Outline, pre-publication reviews, promotional brochure,
n.d.

Box 8: folder 61
Research materials, Chapter 1,
n.d.

Box 8: folder 62-63
Research materials, Chapters 2 and 3,
n.d.

Box 8: folder 64
Research materials, Chapters 4 and 5,
n.d.

Box 8: folder 65-66
Research materials, family chapters, general,
n.d.

Box 9: folder 67
Research materials, family chapters, general,
n.d.

Box 9: folder 68
Research materials, Instructor's Guide,
n.d.

Box 9: folder 69-70
Note:
Computer disks and related correspondence,
1995

Box 9: folder 71
Reviews


Box 9: folder 71a
Anthology of Ecological Social Work,
1992


Contract,
31 Aug 1991

Box 9: folder 72
Correspondence with Alex Gitterman
Dec 1987-Nov 1992

Box 9: folder 73
Correspondence with Alex Gitterman
Jan-Dec, 1993

Box 9: folder 74
Correspondence with Alex Gitterman
Jan-Dec 1994

Box 9: folder 75
Correspondence with Alex Gitterman
Jan-Jun, 1995, n.d.

Box 9: folder 76
Correspondence with publisher
1984-95

Box 10: folder 77
Prospectus,
n.d.

Box 10: folder 78
Research materials,
n.d.

Box 10: folder 79-81
Typed manuscript,
1995


Section 1


Box 11: folder 82
Section 2


Box 11: folder 83
Section 3


Box 11: folder 84
Section 4


Box 11: folder 85
Section 5


Box 11: folder 86
Instructor's Manual, Version 1


Box 12: folder 87
Instructor's Manual, Version 2


Box 12: folder 88
5.25" computer disks,
1994, n.d.

Box 12: folder 88a
Research materials--unidentified



Probably for either Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View,or The Life Model of Social Work Practice: Advances in Theory and Practice,1996
1991

Box 13-14: folder 89-98
Articles



"Social Study, Past and Future",
1968

Box 15: folder 99
"An Ecological Perspective in Casework Practice",
1973

Box 15
"A Theoretical View of the Life Model: Eco-Systems Perspective",
1975

Box 15
"Social Work Practice: A Life Model",
1976

Box 15
"Time: An Ecological Variable in Social Work Practice",
1976

Box 15
"General Systems Theory and Ego Psychology: An Ecological Perspective",
1978

Box 15
"Space: An Ecological Variable in Social Work Practice",
1978

Box 15
"People and Ideas in the History of Social Work Practice" (co-authored with Ann Hartman),
1980

Box 15
"Social Work Identity, Competence, and Autonomy: The Ecological Perspective",
1980

Box 15
"The Ecological Approach to People--Environment Transactions",
1981

Box 15
"Teaching Primary Prevention in Social Work: An Ecological Perspective",
1982

Box 15
Untitled: debate in Practice Digest,
1982

Box 15: folder 100
"Time, Change, and Social Work",
1983

Box 15
"Human Development in Contemporary Environments",
1987

Box 15
"Effectiveness of Natural Rural Helpers",
1988

Box 15
"Emerging Conceptions of Family Development Over the Life Course",
1990

Box 15
"An Instructor's Story About Students' Life Stories",
1991

Box 15
"Patterns of Natural Helping in Rural Areas: Implications for Social Work Research" (co- authored with S. Patterson, J. Memmott and E. Brennan),
1992

Box 15
"Emerging Conceptions of Family Development Over the Life Course",
1994

Box 15
Untitled: invited article in Issues in Social Work Education,
n.d.

Box 15
Research materials for "People and Ideas in the History of Social Work Practice" (co-authored with Ann Hartman), Social Casework 61 (6): 323-331,
1980

Box 15: folder 101
Commentaries and reviews



1974-90

Box 15: folder 102
1991-95, n.d.

Box 15: folder 103
Forewords, introductions and chapters



1980-95

Box 16: folder 104
Subject entries in Encyclopedia of Social Work,
1981, 1985, 1993, 1995

Box 16: folder 105
Written debate in Controversial Issues in Human Behavior, Martin Bloom, ed.,
1995

Box 16: folder 106
Speeches



Conferences and symposia



1970-74

Box 16: folder 107
1975-79

Box 16: folder 108
1980-81

Box 16: folder 109
1982-83

Box 16: folder 110
1984-86

Box 16: folder 111
1987-89

Box 16: folder 112
1990, n.d.

Box 16: folder 113
Commencement, convocation and miscellaneous addresses,
1971-87

Box 16: folder 114
Unpublished works



Dissertation: "Casework and Science: A Study in the Sociology of Knowledge"



Note:
Correspondence, institutional,
1968-68

Box 18: folder 115
Correspondence, advisory,
1967-71

Box 18: folder 116
Correspondence, publication, general,
1971-74

Box 18: folder 117
Correspondence, publication, University of Chicago Press,
1971-72

Box 18: folder 118
Research materials,
n.d.

Box 18: folder 119-121
Typed manuscript,
1971


Chapters 1-4


Box 19: folder 122
Chapters 5-6


Box 19: folder 123
Chapter 7-epilogue


Box 19: folder 124
"Science and Humanism in Social Casework: The History and Sociology of an Idea System"



Typed manuscript,
n.d.


Chapters 1-3


Box 19: folder 125
Chapters 4-5


Box 19: folder 126
Chapter 6-epilogue


Box 19: folder 127
"A History of Practice Theory in Social Work" (with Ann Hartman)



Research materials,
n.d.

Box 20: folder 128-129
Typed manuscript (incomplete), bibliographies and references,
n.d.

Box 20: folder 130
Correspondence,
1975-76, n.d.

Box 20: folder 131
Unidentified writings,
1995, n.d.

Box 20: folder 132
Typed essays, probably unpublished,
1983, 1985, n.d.

Box 20: folder 133
SERIES VI. SUBJECTS



Addiction


Box 21: folder 134-135
Adolescence


Box 21: folder 136-139
Adulthood


Box 22: folder 140-143
AIDS


Box 22: folder 144-145
Census data


Box 23: folder 146
Children


Box 23: folder 147
Community


Box 23: folder 148-153
Death and dying


Box 24: folder 154-155
Divorce


Box 24: folder 156
Dubos, Rene


Box 24: folder 157
Elders and aging


Box 24: folder 158-159
Elders and aging


Box 25: folder 160-166
Empathy, friendship, non-traditional relationships


Box 26: folder 167
Empowerment


Box 26: folder 168
Environment, natural world


Box 26: folder 169
Ethics in social work


Box 26: folder 170
Family violence


Box 26: folder 171-172
Feminism, general


Box 26: folder 173
Feminism



"The 'Risk' of Essence"


Box 26: folder 173a
"Feminism and Methodology"


Box 26: folder 173b
Genetics


Box 26: folder 174
Health, healthcare


Box 27: folder 175
History and philosophy of science


Box 27: folder 176
History of social work


Box 27: folder 177-179
History of social work



"One Hundred Years of Social Work in Kansas: Beginning Before 1866 and Ending After 1966," by Esther E. Twente


Box 27: folder 179a
History of social work


Box 27: folder 180-181
History of social work


Box 28: folder 182-187
Homelessness


Box 28: folder 188
Homosexuality


Box 29: folder 189-190
Immigrants, minorities, refugees


Box 29: folder 191-193
Language


Box 29: folder 194-195
Legal


Box 29: folder 196
Life course theory


Box 30: folder 197
Marriage and couplehood


Box 30: folder 198
Mental illness


Box 30: folder 199-202
National Conference of Social Work: proceedings (incomplete),
1926-27, 1932, 1936-37, 1939, 1940-41

Box 31: folder 203-211
National Conference of Social Work: proceedings (incomplete),
1942, 1948, 1954-56

Box 32: folder 212-215
National Conference on Social Welfare (incomplete),
1957-58,1960-61

Box 32: folder 216-219
Physical disability and chronic illness


Box 33: folder 220-221
Note:
Physical and emotional environment


Box 33: folder 222-223
Physical illness


Box 33: folder 224
Physiology: the brain


Box 33: folder 225
Physiology: pregnancy


Box 33: folder 226-227
Politics


Box 34: folder 228
Poverty


Box 34: folder 229
Reynolds, Bertha Capen


Box 34: folder 230
School age child


Box 34: folder 231-232
School years


Box 35: folder 233-234
Schools


Box 35: folder 235
Simulations


Box 35: folder 236
Note:
Social work theory


Box 35: folder 237-238
Stress


Box 35: folder 239
Summer camp


Box 35: folder 240
Work, workplace


Box 36: folder 241-243
Miscellaneous, unidentified


Box 36: folder 244
OVERSIZE MATERIAL



Artwork for Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View,
1991

Flat File:
Diagram from subject file "Simulations"


Flat File:
Pamphlet, "Vital Signs of a Healthy Nation", National Association of Social Workers,
n.d.

Flat File:

Search Terms
The following terms represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. Use these headings to search for additional materials on this web site, in the Five College Library Catalog, or in other library catalogs and databases.

Subjects
  • Developmental psychology--Research--Sources
  • Dubos, Rene J., (Rene Jules), 1901-
  • Environmental psychology--Research--Sources
  • Family social work--United States--History--Sources
  • Germain, Carel B.
  • Gitterman, Alex, 1938- --Correspondence
  • Hartman, Ann--Correspondence
  • Human ecology--Research--Sources
  • Reynolds, Bertha Capen, 1885-
  • Social work education--United States--History--Sources
  • Social workers--United States--History--Sources
  • World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, American


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